Although Dobrava-Belgrade virus and Tula virus circulate in rodent hosts in Germany and might cause an infection in humans (38-40), almost all hantavirus infections (especially in southern Germany) are caused by PUUV
As proven by specificity testing including triplicate measurements, none of the 5 individual assays developed for the identification of DOBV, PUUV
, TULV, HNTV/SEOV, and ANDV/SNV showed nonspecific cross-reactions to other hantaviruses.
Hantavirus infections in the Netherlands are most likely caused by PUUV
, although SEOV- or TULV-associated infections cannot be excluded; clinical SEOV infections have been reported from France and the United Kingdom (8,9).
To determine whether this fatal NE case was caused by an unusual or rare genetic variant of PUUV
, we searched for identical or closely related genetic variants in bank voles trapped near the patient's house (storage buildings and surroundings within 500 m) in PieksAmAki, central Finland (62[degrees]18'N, 27[degrees]08'E).
Identification of new PUUV
clades in 2010 was associated with a higher incidence of human disease than in 2007.
Mild winter was also hypothesized as a factor leading to an outbreak of PUUV
infection 2007 in northern Sweden (25).
strain Kazan wild type (PUUV
Kazan-wt) (7,8) was used for subcutaneous inoculation of bank voles, and Vero E6 cell line-adapted PUUV
strain Kazan (PUUV
Kazan-E6) (7) was used in inhibition experiments and as a positive control in the real-time RT-PCR.
EU177630) was highly homologous to those of other rodent PUUV
isolates from the area.
The natural reservoir of PUUV
is the bank vole, Myodes glareolus; the virus is transmitted to humans by the aerosolized excreta of these rodents (1).
Hantaviruses cause 2 human zoonoses: HFRS in Asia and Europe (caused by Hantaan virus [HTNV], Seoul virus [SEOV], PUUV
, and DOBV) and hantavirus (cardio)pulmonary syndrome in the Americas (caused by Sin Nombre and Andes viruses) (2-4).
causes nephropathia epidemica (NE), a milder form of HFRS.
Except for the levels of serum creatinine, no remarkable differences were found in the clinical course of HFRS caused by PUUV