PPARA

(redirected from PPAR-alpha)

PPARA

A gene on chromosome 22q12-q13.1 that encodes a ligand-activated transcription factor, which is a key regulator of lipid metabolism. PPARA is a receptor for peroxisome proliferators such as hypolipidaemic
drugs and fatty acids, regulating the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway of fatty acids and acting as a transcription activator for ACOX1 and P450. PPARA is upregulated by heterodimerisation with RXRA and downregulated by heterodimerisation with NR2C2.
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PPAR-alpha is mainly expressedin liver while PPAR-gamma is predominantly expressed in adipose tissue and the immune system in the adult rat (Braissant et al.
Specifically, the studies showed an activation of PPAR-alpha, a receptor that promotes the breakdown of fat and lowers cholesterol, and AMPK, an enzyme that promotes energy burn.
The cherry diet was also associated with significantly enhanced hepatic PPAR-alpha mRNA, enhanced hepatic PPAR-alpha target acyl-coenzyme A oxidase mRNA and activity, and increased plasma antioxidant capacity.
Gluten-free diet reduces adiposity, inflammation and insulin resistance associated with the induction of PPAR-alpha and PPAR-gamma expression.
Fat from linseed, walnuts, mackerel and sardines help produce fat-burning enzyme PPAR-alpha, which also slows down fat storage," says trainer to the stars James Duigan.
PPAR-alpha antibody was purchased from Abcam (San Francisco, CA).
Lodhi and Semenkovich noticed that in mice without FAS in their fat cells, activity of PPAR-alpha (the fat burner) was increased, while PPAR-gamma (the fat builder) activity decreased.
PPAR-alpha and PPAR-gamma activators induce cholesterol removal from human macrophage foam cells through stimulation of the ABCA1 pathway.
Researchers from the University of Barcelona report that, according to their rat study, liquid fructose changes the metabolism of fat in the liver by affecting a specific nuclear receptor called PPAR-alpha, leading to a reduction in the liver's ability to degrade the sweetener.
Whereas the glitazones' insulin-sensitising activity was due to their activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma, the glitazars also activate the PPAR-alpha subtype as well, which lowers plasma triglyceride concentration and increases high-density lipoproteins.
The drug simultaneously targets two defects that characterize type 2 diabetes: Activation of PPAR-gamma reduces insulin resistance and improves glucose control, while PPAR-alpha activation improves lipid metabolism.
Capitalizing on the success of PPAR-gamma receptor agonists or thiazolidinediones, new oral agents targeting both PPAR-gamma and PPAR-alpha receptors are in development.