PEM


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PEM

abbreviation for protein-energy malnutrition.

PEM

Abbreviation for protein energy malnutrition.

encephalomyelitis

(en-sef?a-lo-mi?e-lit'is) [ encephalo- + myelitis]
Encephalitis accompanied by infection and inflammation of the spinal cord. It may follow a viral infection or, in rare instances, a vaccination with a live, weakened virus.

acute disseminated encephalomyelitis

An uncommon demyelinating, inflammatory brain disease that may occur after some viral infections or some vaccinations. Synonym: postinfectious encephalomyelitis

benign myalgic encephalomyelitis

An epidemic disease of unknown cause marked by influenza-like symptoms, severe pain, and muscular weakness. Synonym: Iceland disease

herpesvirus simian encephalomyelitis

A severe, almost always fatal encephalomyelitis caused by the herpesvirus simiae (also called B virus). It occurs among veterinarians, laboratory workers, and others who come in contact with infected monkeys.

equine encephalomyelitis

A viral disease of horses that may be communicated to humans. It includes eastern and western equine encephalitis.

paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis

Abbreviation: PEM
An inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system that occurs in the setting of a cancer found in another part of the body and probably results from the remote effects of some antigen or hormone released by the tumor.

postinfectious encephalomyelitis

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis.

postvaccinal encephalomyelitis

Encephalomyelitis following smallpox vaccination.

paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis

Abbreviation: PEM
An inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system that occurs in the setting of a cancer found in another part of the body and probably results from the remote effects of some antigen or hormone released by the tumor.

malnutrition

(mal?noo-tri'shon) [ mal- + nutrition]
Any disease-promoting condition due to either an inadequate or an excessive exposure to nutrients, i.e., undernutrition or overnutrition. Common causes of malnutrition are inadequate calorie consumption; inadequate intake of essential vitamins, minerals, or other micronutrients; improper absorption and distribution of foods within the body; overeating; and intoxication by nutrient excesses. See: table; and names of specific nutritional disorders, e.g., obesity, pellegra, scurvy.

Worldwide, malnutrition is a disease that results typically from inadequate consumption of foods, esp. proteins, iron, and vitamins. In industrialized nations, overnutrition is more common than undernutrition. In the U.S., 50% of the population is considered to be overweight, and 22% have a body mass index greater than 30 kg/m2 and are obese. Undernutrition in Western nations typically results from poverty, alcoholism, chronic illnesses, or extreme dieting.

protein-calorie malnutrition

Protein-energy malnutrition.

protein-energy malnutrition

Abbreviation: PEM
Malnutrition due to inadequate intake of calories or protein, or both. It usually is seen in children under 5 or in patients undergoing the stress of a major illness. In the critically ill patient, hypoalbuminemia results from the depletion of stored protein and/or hepatic dysfunction. It may increase a patient's vulnerability to the toxicities of drugs, skin breakdown, infections, gastrointestinal ulcerations, and other illnesses. Synonym: protein-calorie malnutrition See: kwashiorkor

Symptoms

Symptoms of PEM include generalized muscle wasting and weakness. In the elderly, these symptoms are sometimes incorrectly attributed to advanced age, and as a result, PEM is underdiagnosed.

SOURCE: Committee on Medical Nutrition, National Research Council, with permission.
Infants and ChildrenAdolescents and Adults
Lack of subcutaneous fatRed, swollen lingual papillae
Wrinkling of skin on light strokingGlossitis
Poor muscle tonePapillary atrophy of tongue
PallorStomatitis
Rough skin (toad skin)Spongy, bleeding gums
Hemorrhage of newborn, vitamin K deficiencyMuscle tenderness in extremities
Bad posturePoor muscle tone
Nasal area is red and greasyLoss of vibratory sensation
Sores at angles of mouth, cheilosisIncrease or decrease of tendon reflexes
Rapid heartbeatHyperesthesia of skin
Red tonguePurpura
Square head, wrists enlarged, rib beadingDermatitis: facial butterfly, perineal, scrotal, vulval
Vincent's angina, thrushThickening and pigmentation of skin over bony prominences
Serious dental abnormalitiesNonspecific vaginitis
Corneal and conjunctival changesFollicular hyperkeratosis of extensor surfaces of extremities
Adolescents and AdultsRachitic chest deformity
Nasolabial sebaceous plugsAnemia not responding to iron
Sores at angles of mouth, cheilosisFatigue of visual accommodation
Vincent's anginaVascularization of cornea
Minimal changes in tongue color or textureConjunctival changes

protein-energy malnutrition

Abbreviation: PEM
Malnutrition due to inadequate intake of calories or protein, or both. It usually is seen in children under 5 or in patients undergoing the stress of a major illness. In the critically ill patient, hypoalbuminemia results from the depletion of stored protein and/or hepatic dysfunction. It may increase a patient's vulnerability to the toxicities of drugs, skin breakdown, infections, gastrointestinal ulcerations, and other illnesses. Synonym: protein-calorie malnutrition See: kwashiorkor

Symptoms

Symptoms of PEM include generalized muscle wasting and weakness. In the elderly, these symptoms are sometimes incorrectly attributed to advanced age, and as a result, PEM is underdiagnosed.

See also: malnutrition
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