methotrexate

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methotrexate

 [meth″o-trek´sāt]
an antimetaboliteantineoplastic agent that inhibits the conversion of folic acid to tetrahydrofolic acid by binding the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase, thus inhibiting DNA synthesis; it is specific for the S phase of the cell cycle. Used as the base and the sodium salt in the treatment of leukemias, lymphomas, sarcomas, and cancer of the head and neck, breast, colon, lung, testes, and other organs. Called also MTX. It is also used in the treatment of psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis. Administered orally, intravenously, intramuscularly, intrathecally, or intra-arterially.

meth·o·trex·ate

(meth'ō-trek'sāt),
A folic acid antagonist used as an antineoplastic agent; used to treat psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis.
Synonym(s): amethopterin

methotrexate

/meth·o·trex·ate/ (-trek´sāt) a folic acid antagonist used as the base or the sodium salt as an antineoplastic, antipsoriatic, and antiarthritic.

methotrexate

(mĕth′ə-trĕk′sāt)
n.
A toxic antimetabolite, C20H22N8O5, that acts as a folic acid antagonist to interfere with cellular reproduction and is used to treat psoriasis, certain cancers, and some inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis.

methotrexate

[meth′ōtrek′sāt]
an antineoplastic antimetabolite. Also called amethopterin.
indications It is prescribed in the treatment of a variety of malignant neoplastic diseases of the blood and organs and in the treatment of psoriasis, and it is widely used as an immunosuppressive agent for the treatment of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis.
contraindications Blood dyscrasias, severe renal or hepatic impairment, or known hypersensitivity to this drug prohibits its use.
adverse effects Among the more serious adverse effects are diarrhea, ulcerative stomatitis, bone marrow depression, hepatotoxicity, and skin rash.

methotrexate

A widely used, toxic antimetabolic agent. MTX is a potent folic acid antagonist (antifolate) and competes with dihydrofolate (the natural substrate) for binding sites on dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), blocking production of tetrahydrofolate; folate is the vitamin co-factor in methyl group transport for purine and thymidilic acid synthesis and DNA synthesis.

Toxicity
Nausea, vomiting, anorexia, stomatitis, CNS changes, hypersensitivity, liver damage, ocular irritation, dose-limiting myelotoxicity may appear 4–7 days after beginning therapy, nephrotoxicity (crystallisation within renal tubules).

Lab
Transient increase of LFTs.
 
Gynaecology—Indications
May be used to manage tubal pregnancy; evokes resorption or tubal abortion by an unknown mechanism; failure of MTX is increased if hCG levels are increased.
 
Pronunciation
Medspeak-UK: pronounced MEE tho trex ate
Medspeak-US: pronounced MEH tho trex ate

Oncology
A widely used chemotherapeutic, which may be used alone to cure certain malignancies (e.g., choriocarcinoma) or with other agents for lymphoproliferations (ALL; ANLL; Hodgkin lymphoma; non-Hodgkin’s, Burkitt’s and histiocytic lymphomas; mycosis fungoides; myeloma; head and neck, ovarian and small-cell carcinomas; osteosarcoma; medulloblastoma) and nonmalignant conditions (e.g., recalcitrant psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease). Combined with cyclosporine and prednisone, MTX reduces the incidence of acute GVHD from 23% to 9%, without affecting disease-free survival.

methotrexate

Folex® PFS, Rheumatrex® Oncology A widely used but toxic antimetabolic chemotherapeutic which may be used alone to treat certain malignancies–eg, choriocarcinoma, and with other agents for lymphoproliferations–ALL, ANLL, Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's, Burkitt's and histiocytic lymphomas, mycosis fungoides, myeloma, head & neck, ovarian and small cell carcinomas, osteosarcoma, medulloblastoma; nonmalignant conditions–eg, recalcitrant psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis; combined with cyclosporine and prednisone, MTX ↓ the incidence of acute GVHD from 23% to 9%, without affecting disease-free survival; MTX is a potent folic acid antagonist–antifolate and competes with dihydrofolate—the natural substrate, for binding sites on dihydrofolate reductase–DHFR, blocking production of tetrahydrofolate–folate is the vitamin co-factor in methyl group transport for purine and thymidilic acid synthesis and DNA synthesis. See Leucovorin rescue, MDR gene Toxicity N&V, anorexia, stomatitis, CNS changes, hypersensitivity, liver damage, ocular irritation, dose-limiting myelotoxicity may appear 4-7 days after beginning therapy, nephrotoxicity–crystallization within renal tubules Lab Transient ↑of LFTs.

meth·o·trex·ate

(meth'ō-trek'sāt)
A folic acid antagonist used as an antineoplastic agent and to treat psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis.

methotrexate

An ANTIMETABOLITE and IMMUNOSUPPRESSIVE drug used to treat cancer and help in the treatment of RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS. It acts by interfering with the metabolism of FOLIC ACID. The drug is on the WHO official list. A brand name is Maxtrex.

Methotrexate

A drug that interferes with cell growth and is used to treat rheumatoid arthritis as well as various types of cancer. Side-effects may include mouth sores, digestive upsets, skin rashes, and hair loss.

methotrexate

antimetabolite agent that inhibits cell proliferation; used to treat acute lymphoblastic lymphoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis; administered in conjunction with folic acid, to prevent myelosuppression and anaemia

immunosuppressants

Drugs that prevent or reduce the immune response. They are used in the treatment of a variety of severe inflammations such as uveitis, scleritis, keratoconjunctivitis sicca, Behçet's syndrome, sympathetic ophthalmia, and to prevent corneal graft rejection. They include the corticosteroids (e.g. prednisolone), ciclosporin (cyclosporine), tacrolimus, and cytotoxic agents (e.g. azathioprine, chlorambucil, cyclophosphamide, methotrexate). It must be noted that immunosuppressants render the patient more susceptible to infection because immunity is reduced.

meth·o·trex·ate

(meth'ō-trek'sāt)
Folic acid antagonist used as an antineoplastic agent and to treat psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis.

methotrexate

a folic acid antagonist used as an antineoplastic agent.

Patient discussion about methotrexate

Q. Is methotrexate available in the United States as a treatment for fibromyalgia? Last year I was diagnosed as fibromyalgia. I feel a lot of fatigue and stiffness. I came upon a website from where I read that rheumatoid arthritis causes those same symptoms and can be treated with methotrexate. After reading that, I purchased a half year supply of the drug over the counter in Mexico. It eliminated all of my symptoms. A month after my supply ran out, all the symptoms returned. Is methotrexate available in the United States as a treatment for fibromyalgia?

A. Yes fatigue and stiffness are some of the symptoms of fibromyalgia. Methotrexate is certainly available in the United States, but it is not approved for nor used as a treatment for fibromyalgia. It was originally developed to treat cancer and subsequently found to be very effective for a number of inflammatory disorders, such as RA and psoriasis. Because fibromyalgia is not an inflammatory disorder – that is, there is no identifiable inflammation in the muscles or joints in individuals with this condition – it is not clear why you responded to this drug. You should tell your physician about your response to methotrexate. It may be possible that you have an inflammatory disorder rather than – or in addition to – fibromyalgia.

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