Ordinary least squares regressions using clustered standard errors to control for repeated observations from the same state were used to estimate the coefficients of the Reform variable.

Shimizu and Nishimura (2007) estimated using

ordinary least squares hedonic price equations of commercial and residential land prices in Tokyo for a 25-year period (from 1975 to 1999) and investigated possible structural changes in these price equations.

Robustness Issues: Core Versus Headline Inflation and

Ordinary Least Squares Versus Instrumental Variables

On the other hand,

ordinary least squares (OLS) models the relationship between a dependent variable and a collection of independent variables.

Undergraduate econometric textbooks generally state the Gauss-Markov theorem as follows: Among all linear unbiased estimators, the

ordinary least squares (OLS) estimator is best in the sense that it has minimum variance [Gujarati 1995; Pindyck and Rubinfeld 1997; Studenmund 1997].

We conduct tests by using both

ordinary least squares and two-stage least squares regression models and various measures of board independence.

The regressions follow the dynamic

ordinary least squares method as described in the article.

2532) Dependent

Ordinary Least Squares Regression--Model 1 Variable [X.

These factors, together with the very limited number of observations (22), lead us to rely upon the small-sample strengths of

ordinary least squares to estimate equation (3) rather than upon the asymptotic properties of grouped-data logit (or probit) or weighted least squares.

Ordinary least squares (OLS) is the usual method for carrying out regression analysis, and it is optimal in the sense that it summarizes the information in the data.

The

ordinary least squares estimate for a particular explanatory variable indicates the change in the monthly apartment rent per unit of change in the explanatory variable, holding constant the remaining variables in the regression.

The results using the SUR technique are not substantially different from those obtained using the more traditional

Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) approach.