nucleotide

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nucleotide

 [noo´kle-o-tīd]
any of a group of compounds obtained by hydrolysis of nucleic acids, consisting of a purine or pyrimidine base linked to a sugar (ribose or deoxyribose), which in turn is esterified with phosphoric acid.
cyclic n's those in which the phosphate group bonds to two atoms of the sugar forming a ring, as in cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP, which act as intracellular second messengers.

nu·cle·o·tide

(nū'klē-ō-tīd),
Originally a combination of a (nucleic acid) purine or pyrimidine, one sugar (usually ribose or deoxyribose), and a phosphoric group; by extension, any compound containing a heterocyclic compound bound to a phosphorylated sugar by an N-glycosyl link (for example, adenosine monophosphate, NAD+). For individual nucleotides see specific names.
Synonym(s): mononucleotide

nucleotide

/nu·cleo·tide/ (noo´kle-o-tīd″) one of the compounds into which nucleic acid is split by action of nuclease; nucleotides are composed of a base (purine or pyrimidine), a sugar (ribose or deoxyribose), and a phosphate group.
cyclic nucleotides  those in which the phosphate group bonds to two atoms of the sugar forming a ring, as in cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP, which act as intracellular second messengers.

nucleotide

(no͞o′klē-ə-tīd′, nyo͞o′-)
n.
Any of a group of compounds consisting of a nucleoside combined with a phosphate group and constituting the units that make up DNA and RNA molecules.

nucleotide

[no̅o̅′klē·ətīd′]
a compound consisting of one or more phosphate groups, a pentose sugar, and a nitrogenous base. Chains of nucleotides form DNA and RNA; free nucleotides, such as adenosine triphosphate and guanosine triphosphate, are important energy carriers in all cells.

nu·cle·o·tide

(nū'klē-ō-tīd)
A combination of a (nucleic acid) purine or pyrimidine, one sugar (usually ribose or deoxyribose), and a phosphoric group.
Synonym(s): mononucleotide.

nucleotide

A molecule formed from the bonding of a purine or a pyrimidine base with a sugar and a mono-, di- or tri-phosphate group. Compare NUCLEOSIDE. Four different nucleotides may polymerize to form DNA. They are 2'-deoxyadenosine 5'-triphosphate; 2'-deoxyguanosine 5'-triphosphate; 2'-deoxycytidine 5'-triphosphate; and 2'-deoxythymidine 5'-triphosphate. These lengthy names are commonly abbreviated to dATP, dGTP, dCTP and dTTP. Even this is too clumsy when printing out the sequence of nucleotides in a length of DNA. In that case they are abbreviated to A, G, C and T (for adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine). In RNA the sugar is not 2'-deoxyribose, but ribose itself. Also one of the RNA bases differs from that in DNA. Thymine is replaced by uracil. So the nucleotides of RNA are adenosine 5'-triphosphate; guanosine 5'-triphosphate; cytidine 5'-triphosphate; and uridine 5'-triphosphate. These are abbreviated to ATP, GTP, CTP and UTP or simply A, G, C and U.
Nucleotideclick for a larger image
Fig. 232 Nucleotide . Basic units of (a) deoxyribose sugar, (b) phosphate. Each carbon atom is numbered (1 prime, 2 prime, etc).
Nucleotideclick for a larger image
Fig. 233 Nucleotide . Linkage of the three nucleotide elements.

nucleotide

a complex organic molecule forming the basic unit of NUCLEIC ACIDS, with a structure made up of three components: a pentose sugar (ribose, or deoxyribose with one less oxygen atom), an organic base (PURINE type: ADENINE and GUANINE; or PYRIMIDINE type: CYTOSINE, THYMINE and URACIL) and a phosphate group (see Fig. 232 ). The three elements are linked together by two condensation reactions between the 1 sugar carbon and a base forming a NUCLEOSIDE, and the 5' sugar carbon and the phosphate (see Fig. 233 ). The nucleotides are formed into POLYNUCLEOTIDE CHAINS.

Nucleotide

Any of a group of organic molecules that link together to form the building blocks of DNA or RNA.
Mentioned in: Myotonic Dystrophy

nucleotide

combination of nucleic acid, purine or pyramidine, sugar (ribose or deoxyribose) and a phosphate group

nucleotide

any of a group of compounds obtained by hydrolysis of nucleic acids, consisting of a purine or pyrimidine base linked to a sugar (ribose or deoxyribose), which in turn is esterified with phosphoric acid. See also nucleoside, deoxyribonucleic acid.

cyclic n's
those in which the phosphate group bonds to two atoms of the sugar forming a ring, as in cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP, which act as intracellular second messengers.
nucleotide sequences
see dna sequencing.
single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)
single base pair changes that distinguish one individual from another of the same species.
References in periodicals archive ?
Combinations of three nucleotides in DNA, also sometimes called bases, specify particular amino acids.
Sphaerospermum are clustered together which prove their close relationship and agreed with the results of the nucleotide differences.
We arrange nucleotides decreasingly according to nucleotide frequency.
Ajinomoto said nucleotide seasonings produce ''robust'' flavor when used in combination with monosodium glutamate.
Ajinomoto also said it will reorganize its production bases for nucleotides seasonings in Japan to improve efficiency.
Over 35 grants have been awarded for research including nucleotide selectivity of error prone RNA viral polymerases, PCR primer design for undergraduate teaching and research, CleanAmp (TM) Primers for detection of mRNA expression and DNA repair studies of cross-linked DNA.
CJ CheilJedang will solidify its position as global N[degrees]1 nucleotides producer by expanding investments and particularly focusing on China, where the biggest market growth is observed", stated Mr Kim Chulha, Head of the CJ Bio Business Unit.
This strain showed 93%-94% and 96%-97% identity at the nucleotide and amino acid level, respectively, which suggests a sufficient antigenic community.
Notably, Cd(II), Fe(II), and Pb(II) [but not As(III), Co(II), or Ni(II)] inhibited AP endonuclease activity in whole-cell extracts but had no significant effect on single nucleotide gap filling, 5'-flap endonuclease, and nick ligation activities, supporting the idea of selective inactivation of Ape1 in cells.
As originally granted, the claims of this patent covered siRNAs with up to 25 nucleotides complementary to a target gene, and were obtained by use during prosecution of a so-called "Disclaimer Practice" that was deemed to be not applicable as a result of a separate ruling issued by the Enlarged Board of the EPO.
Global demand for nucleotides in fiscal 2008, meanwhile, was approximately 21,000 tons, according to company estimates.
fluorescence detection of dideoxynucleotide-terminated DNA extension reactions resolved by capillary array electrophoresis [CAE]) allows the determination of sequence "read" segments approximately 1000 nucleotides long.

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