iron polysaccharide

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iron polysaccharide

(eye-ern poll-ee-sak-a-ride) ,

Hytinic

(trade name),

Niferex

(trade name),

Nu-Iron

(trade name)

Classification

Therapeutic: antianemics
Pharmacologic: iron supplements

Indications

Oral: Treatment & prevention iron deficiency anemia.

Action

An essential mineral found in hemoglobin, myoglobin, and many enzymes.
Enters the bloodstream and is transported to the organs of the reticuloendothelial system (liver, spleen, bone marrow) where it becomes part of iron stores.

Therapeutic effects

Resolution or prevention of iron deficiency anemia.

Pharmacokinetics

Absorption: Approximately 5–10% of dietary iron is absorbed (up to 30% in deficiency states). Therapeutically administered PO iron is up to 60% absorbed via active and passive transport processes.
Distribution: Remains in the body for many months. Crosses the placenta; enters breast milk.
Protein Binding: ≥90%.
Metabolism and Excretion: Mostly recycled; small daily losses occurring via desquamation, sweat, urine, and bile.
Half-life: .

Time/action profile (effects on erythropoiesis)

ROUTEONSETPEAKDURATION
PO4 days7–10 days2–4 mo

Contraindications/Precautions

Contraindicated in: Anemia not due to iron deficiency; Hemochromatosis; Hemosiderosis; Hypersensitivity to iron products.
Use Cautiously in: Peptic ulcer disease; Ulcerative colitis or regional enteritis (condition may be aggravated); Alcoholism; Severe hepatic impairment; Severe renal impairment.

Adverse Reactions/Side Effects

Central nervous system

  • dizziness
  • headache
  • syncope

Gastrointestinal

  • nausea (most frequent)
  • constipation (most frequent)
  • dark stools (most frequent)
  • epigastric pain (most frequent)
  • GI bleeding
  • vomiting

Miscellaneous

  • temporary staining of teeth (liquid preparations)

Interactions

Drug-Drug interaction

↓ absorption of tetracyclines, fluoroquinolonesbisphosphonates, levothyroxine, mycofenolate mofetil, and penicillamine (simultaneous administration should be avoided).↓ absorption of and may ↓ effects of levodopa and methyldopa.Concurrent administration of proton pump inhibitors, histamine H2 antagonists, and cholestyramine may ↓ absorption of iron.Doses of ascorbic acid ≥200 mg may ↑ absorption of iron by up to 30%.Chloramphenicol and vitamin E may ↓ hematologic response to iron therapy.Iron absorption is ↓ 33–50% by concurrent administration of food.

Route/Dosage

Oral (Adults) 50-100 mg twice daily of tablets or 150-300 mg/day of the capsules.
Oral (Children >6yr) 50-100 mg/day (may be given in divided doses).
Oral (Infants) 1–2 mg/kg/day.
Oral (Adults —Pregnant Women) 30–60 mg/day.

Availability

Capsules: 150 mgOTC
Tablets: 50 mgOTC

Nursing implications

Nursing assessment

  • Assess nutritional status and dietary history to determine possible cause of anemia and need for patient teaching.
  • Assess bowel function for constipation or diarrhea. Notify health care professional and use appropriate nursing measures should these occur.
  • Lab Test Considerations: Monitor hemoglobin, hematocrit, and reticulocyte values prior to and every 3 wk during the first 2 mo of therapy and periodically thereafter. Serum ferritin and iron levels may also be monitored to assess effectiveness of therapy.
    • Occult blood in stools may be obscured by black coloration of iron in stool. Guaiac test results may occasionally be false-positive. Benzidine test results are not affected by iron preparations.
  • Early symptoms of overdose include stomach pain, fever, nausea, vomiting (may contain blood), and diarrhea. Late symptoms include bluish lips, fingernails, and palms; drowsiness; weakness; tachycardia; seizures; metabolic acidosis; hepatic injury; and cardiovascular collapse. Patient may appear to recover prior to the onset of late symptoms. Therefore, hospitalization continues for 24 hr after patient becomes asymptomatic to monitor for delayed onset of shock or GI bleeding. Late complications of overdose include intestinal obstruction, pyloric stenosis, and gastric scarring.
    • If patient is comatose or seizing, gastric lavage with sodium bicarbonate is performed. Deferoxamine is the antidote. Additional supportive treatments to maintain fluid and electrolyte balance and correction of metabolic acidosis are also indicated.

Potential Nursing Diagnoses

Activity intolerance (Indications)

Implementation

  • Discontinue oral iron preparations prior to parenteral administration.
  • Oral preparations are most effectively absorbed if administered 1 hr before or 2 hr after meals. If gastric irritation occurs, administer with meals. Take tablets and capsules with a full glass of water or juice. Do not crush or chew enteric-coated tablets and do not open capsules.
    • Avoid using antacids, coffee, tea, dairy products, eggs, or whole-grain breads with or within 1 hr after administration of ferrous salts. Iron absorption is decreased by 33% if iron and calcium are given with meals.

Patient/Family Teaching

  • Explain purpose of iron therapy to patient.
  • Encourage patient to comply with medication regimen. Take missed doses as soon as remembered within 12 hr; otherwise, return to regular dosing schedule. Do not double doses.
  • Advise patient that stools may become dark green or black.
  • Instruct patient to follow a diet high in iron (see ).
  • Discuss with parents the risk of a child overdosing on iron. Medication should be stored in the original childproof container and kept out of reach of children. Do not refer to vitamins as candy. In the event of a suspected overdose, parents should contact poison control center (1–800–222–1222) or emergency medical services (911) immediately.

Evaluation/Desired Outcomes

  • Increase in hemoglobin, which may reach normal parameters after 1–2 mo of therapy. May require 3–6 mo for normalization of body iron stores.
  • Improvement in or prevention of iron deficiency anemia.
References in periodicals archive ?
In December 2006, the Nu-Iron Direct Reduced Iron plant began production in Trinidad.
Nucor may expand capacity of its Nu-Iron Unlimited plant by 20% to supply cheaper raw materials to its scrap mills in the US, said CEO Dan DiMicco during an interview at the International Iron and Steel Institute's yearly conference in Berlin.
Companhia Vale do Rio Doce (NYSE: RIO) (CVRD), the world's largest iron ore and pellets producer, concluded the negotiations for the 2006 direct reduction (DR) pellets price with Acindar - Industria Argentina de Aceros SA, a subsidiary of Arcelor, the largest steelmaker in Europe and South America, and NU-Iron Unlimited (NU-iron), a subsidiary of Nucor Corporation, a leading North American steelmaker.
At the same time, CVRD and NU-Iron agreed on a 3% price decrease for Tubarao and Sao Luis DR pellets.
16 /PRNewswire-FirstCall/ -- Nucor Corporation announced today that the heat up of the direct reduced iron ("DRI") facility, Nu-Iron Unlimited, commenced on December 5, 2006, followed by the start-up of DRI production on December 30, 2006.
RIO DE JANEIRO, Brazil, June 7 /PRNewswire-FirstCall/ -- Companhia Vale do Rio Doce (CVRD), the world's largest iron ore and pellets producer, concluded the negotiations for the 2006 direct reduction (DR) pellets price with Acindar - Industria Argentina de Aceros SA, a subsidiary of Arcelor, the largest steelmaker in Europe and South America, and NU-Iron Unlimited (NU-iron), a subsidiary of Nucor Corporation, a leading North American steelmaker.
Nucor currently has three international raw materials ventures: HIsmelt(TM), a joint venture with The Rio Tinto Group, Mitsubishi Corporation and Shougang Corporation to construct a pig iron plant in Western Australia; Ferro Gusa Carajas SA, a joint venture with Companhia Vale do Rio Doce to construct and operate an environmentally responsible pig iron project in northern Brazil; and Nu-Iron Unlimited, a direct reduced iron plant that is being relocated to Trinidad.