Solanum(redirected from Nightshade plant)
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Etymology: L, nightshade
a large genus of plants of the family Solanaceae. It includes the potato, tomato, eggplant, several of the nightshades, and many poisonous and medicinal species.
a widespread plant genus of the family Solanaceae which contains a number of valuable crop plants but also some poisonous ones. Poisoning may be due to (1) the presence in the plant of toxic glycoalkaloids which cause diarrhea, (2) alkamines, e.g. nitrosamines, which cause neuromuscular signs of incoordination, and the 'crazy cow' syndrome, or (3) calcinogenic glycosides which cause excessive deposition of calcium in tissues.
Solanaceous plants which may cause diarrhea syndrome include Solanum aculeastrum, S. americanum, S. aviculare, S. capsiciforme, S. capsicoides, S. carolinense, S. cinereum, S. dulcamara, S. elaeagnifolium, S. incanum, S. laciniatum, S. mauritianum, S. melongena, S. nigrum, S. panduriforme, S. pseudocapsicum, S. quadriloculatum, S. rostratum, S. seaforthianum, S. simile, S. sturtianum, S. symonii, S. triflorum, S. vescum.
Solanaceous plants which cause nervous syndromes include Solanum bonariensis, S. dimidiatum, S. fastigiatum, S. kwebense, S. luederitzii, S. lycopersicum, S. tenuiramosum, S. upingtoniae.
Solanaceous plants causing calcinosis include S. linneanum (S. hermanii, S. sodomaeum), S. malocoxylon (S. glaucophyllum), S. torvum.
Solanaceous plants causing miscellaneous syndromes include S. carolinense (inflammation of the mouth and esophagus), S. tuberosum (the common potato), which can cause carbohydrate engorgement. Eating of large quantities over a long period causes dermatitis of the lower limbs. Greened and sprouted potato tubers contain solanine and cause poisoning if fed without cooking or paring.