One hundred sixty patients with mild cognitive impairment (defined as a score of at least 6 on the 12-item Neuropsychiatric Inventory
[NPI]) were randomly assigned to receive, in double-blind fashion, 240 mg per day of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 (ginkgo) or placebo for 24 weeks.
The study showed that patients with moderate to severe agitation secondary to Alzheimer's disease who were treated with AVP-923 (a combination of dextromethorphan and quinidine) had a clinically meaningful and statistically significant improvement measured by the agitation/aggression domain of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory
(NPI), compared with patients treated with placebo (p<0.
After 10 weeks, the 93 patients on dextromethorphan plus quinidine had their average neuropsychiatric inventory
domain score for agitation and aggression cut roughly in half, compared with baseline, compared with about a 25% drop in average score among 66 control patients, a statistically significant difference for the study's primary endpoint, Dr.
The Neuropsychiatric Inventory
is the most extensively used scale for BPSD, for which many different versions are also available, such as Neuropsychiatric Inventory
-Nursing Home (NPI-NH; for patients living in nursing homes), NPI--Questionnaire (a shorter form, NPI-Q) and NPI--Clinician (a form in which assessment is made not only by the caregiver but also by the clinician and the patient, as well) (12).
1980) and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory
Questionnaire (NPI-Q; Cummings, Mega, Gray, & Rosenburg-Thompson, 1994).
Citalopram also offered significant improvement over placebo in scores on the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory
(NPI), notably in the caregiver distress ratings on the NPI.
The BPSD was evaluated using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory
(NPI), cognitive function was evaluated by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the activities of daily living was evaluated by Barthel index (BI) and Disability Assessment for Dementia (DAD), and the extrapyramidal signs were evaluated by United Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS).
the Neuropsychiatric Inventory
and Caregiver Distress (NPI-D) Scale (14) to screen behavioural and psychological symptoms.
In the neuropsychiatric domain, the Neuropsychiatric inventory
(NPI) was applied.
Behavior will be measured by the Neuropsychiatric Inventory
(NPI), while self-care and daily function will be measured by the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study - Activities of Daily Living (severe) (ADCS-ADLsev).
The combination not only significantly improved total scores on the Neuropsychiatric Inventory
(NPI), but individual scores on agitation/ aggression, elation/euphoria, emotional lability, and appetite, Suzanne Hendrix, Ph.
The primary efficacy endpoint of the study is the change from baseline in the Neuropsychiatric Inventory
-- Clinician ("NPI-C") scale of agitation and aggression.