neuroprosthetics

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neuroprosthetics

(noor?o-pros-thet'iks, nur?) [ neuro- + prosthetics]
Any biomedically engineered device designed to be linked to the peripheral or central nervous system and enhance the cognitive, motor, or sensory abilities of an organism.
Synonym: neural prosthetics
References in periodicals archive ?
Us will be at the core of further development of innovative neuroprostheses endowed with intrinsic adaptive behavior and capable of bi-directional communication with the host CNS, that would restore, by themselves, the function of a diseased brain, with no anatomical or pathophysiological boundaries.
Neuroprostheses using functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS) can restore standing and personal mobility for individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) [1-2].
Neuroprostheses are devices that use electrodes to deliver electrical stimulation to areas where function has been lost due to injury.
Fifteen contributions address the following topics: fundamentals (materials, material-tissue interfaces, packaging and coating materials, microassembly and micropackaging); challenges (biocompatibility, sterilization considerations, patient privacy, marketing); and applications (microelectromechanical systems for in vivo applications, tripolar interfaces for neural recording, motor neuroprostheses, wireless boy area networks, and retina implants).
The main focus will be the Avatar project, which includes the development of anthropomorphic robots, telepresence systems, brain-computer interfaces (BCI), life-support systems for the brain, neuroprostheses, whole brain modeling, consciousness theory, and roadmaps for non-biological mind substrates.
Similar safeguards will be needed for neuroprostheses, including in research.
The six articles here cover these studies, whether alone or in combination, and include brain-emulating cognition and control architecture (used in robot control, natural language processing, and visual perception), two-variable models that form a basis for further investigation of neuronal information processing mechanisms, predictive oculomotor tracking and its stability (based on relationships amongst dynamical systems, information theory and probability), novel tools for simulating human trajectory formation in complex whole-body tasks, suppression of neuromuscular noise through impedance modulation, and human-like control strategies to improve rehabilitation exercises using electrical simulation to create biomimetic neuroprostheses.
A survey of 11 individuals with implanted neuroprostheses for standing and ambulation exercise 12 months post injury reported a reduction in pressure sore incidences, among other findings (1).
All volunteers received implanted neuroprostheses for standing, transfers, or exercise during their participation in other studies.
Among their topics are two cases of neuroimages and what they cannot show, implications of the current and future state of the science and technology of neuroprostheses, ethical issues in performance-enhancing technologies, whether neuroenhancement is unnatural and whether that matters morally, and who benefits from biotechnology and who is harmed by it.
Motor system neuroprostheses utilizing functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS) can provide a means to improve the overall health and functional independence of individuals with paralysis resulting from spinal cord injury (SCI).