meconium aspiration syndrome

(redirected from Neonatal aspiration of meconium)

fe·tal as·pi·ra·tion syn·drome

a syndrome resulting from uterine aspiration of amniotic fluid and meconium by the fetus, usually caused by hypoxia and often leading to aspiration pneumonia.

meconium aspiration syndrome

The in utero passage of meconium, which occurs mainly in mature or postmature infants and often associated with foetal distress or anoxia.

Risk factors
Difficult delivery; foetal distress; intrauterine and/or peripartum hypoxia (due to cerebral haemorrhage, vagal reflex, intrauterine pneumonia, congenital heart disease, other malformation, or drugs), which triggers increased GI peristalsis and relaxation of anal sphincter, resulting in passage of meconium into the amniotic fluid. If the infant makes breathing movements in utero, meconium-rich amniotic fluid can flow into the lungs, causing a partial or complete blockage of the airways, resulting in post-natal dyspnoea, poor gas exchange, airway inflammation and pneumonia. Meconium staining of the amniotic fluid with possible aspiration occurs in 5–10% of births. About one third of the infants with meconium aspiration require some type of assisted breathing. It is a leading cause of death in neonates.

Clinical findings
Low APGAR scores; tachypnoea, dyspnoea and cyanosis, which either resolves in the first three days of life, or if aspirated meconium was significant, patchy infiltrates on chest films, with atelectasis, emphysema and rales.

Management
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

meconium aspiration syndrome

Neonatology A symptom complex caused by the aspiration of meconium at the time of delivery, especially if post-term Clinical Low Apgar scores, tachypnea, dyspnea, cyanosis, which either resolves in the first 3 days of life, or if aspirated meconium was significant, patchy infiltrates on CXR, with atelectasis, emphysema, rales Risk factors Post-term, difficult delivery, fetal distress, intrauterine and/or peripartum hypoxia, triggering increased GI peristalsis. Cf Apgar.

fe·tal as·pi·ra·tion syn·drome

(fē'tăl as'pir-ā'shŭn sin'drōm)
A manifestation resulting from aspiration of amnionic fluid and meconium by the fetus, usually caused by hypoxia and often leading to aspiration pneumonia.
Synonym(s): meconium aspiration syndrome.

meconium aspiration syndrome

A disorder resulting from the passage of meconium by the fetus into the amniotic fluid followed by the diffusion or inspiration of meconium into the fetal airways. Meconium staining of amniotic fluid occurs in about 12 percent of pregnancies and the syndrome affects about 5 percent of these. The death rate from respiratory complications is about 4 percent of affected fetuses and survivors may have pulmonary hypertension or asthma. Surfactant function is compromised.

Meconium aspiration syndrome

Breathing in of meconium (a newborn's first stool) by a fetus or newborn, which can block air passages and interfere with lung expansion.
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