Neanderthal

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Neanderthal

An extinct modern Homo that lived between 230,000 and 22,000 years ago (the last known Neanderthals have been found in the Gravettian region of France). Neanderthals mostly lived in cold climates; their body proportions are similar to those of modern cold-adapted peoples: short and solid, with short limbs. Men averaged ±168 cm; their bones were thick and heavy, and showed signs of powerful muscle attachments. Neanderthals would have been quite strong by modern standards, and their skeletons show that they endured brutally hard lives.

Many Neanderthal tools and weapons have been found and they were more advanced than the tools of Homo erectus. Neanderthals were hunters, and the first Homo spp known to have buried their dead—the oldest known burial site is ±100,000 years old. Neanderthal skeletons are found throughout Europe and the Middle East. The “classic” western European Neanderthals were more robust than those found elsewhere. The average brain size, about 1450 cc, is larger than that of modern humans, but this correlated with their greater bulk; the cranial cavity is longer and lower than that of modern humans, with a marked bulge at the back.

Anatomy
Like Homo erectus, Neanderthals had a protruding jaw and receding forehead. The chin was weak, and the midfacial area also protrudes, a feature not found in Homo erectus or Homo sapiens, which may have been an adaptation to cold. Other minor anatomic differences from modern humans include peculiarities of the shoulder blade and pubic bone.
References in periodicals archive ?
Betty McCollister, "Correcting the Neandertal Stereotype," May/June 1990
So Neandertals probably pooped out faster, since their tendons required more energy.
With this data in hand, the authors convincingly demonstrate that Neandertals are more genetically similar to present-day humans in Eurasia than they are to present-day humans in sub-Saharan Africa - with the expectation being that if there had been no interbreeding, all human populations would be equally related to Neandertal.
A parallel study on the same Neandertal sample also appears online in the journal Science this week.
NYSE:A), and other prestigious institutions worldwide have shown that DNA capture techniques can greatly enable the sequencing of ancient Neandertal DNA, providing new insight into the nature of these prehistoric hominids.
The full text of the study, titled Neandertal roots: Cranial and chronological evidence from Sima de los Huesos, was published on June 20 by (http://www.
Study co-author Konrad Lohse, a population geneticist at the University of Edinburgh, said that their approach can distinguish between two subtly different scenarios that could explain the genetic similarities shared by Neandertals and modern humans from Europe and Asia.
About 40,000 years ago, new work shows, at least three volcanoes erupted in Europe and western Asia, where most of the Neandertals lived.
Sequencing of the Neandertal Genome Will Help to Identify Genetic Changes Responsible for Human Evolution -
He laid the groundwork for today's popular, almost cartoonlike, stereotypes of some of our early ancestors such as the Neandertals and Cro-Magnons, and hominids such as Homo erectus.
It's hard to know for sure what Neandertals used to string together the newly discovered eagle claws, Bower says.
The researchers found that it is related to the mitochondrial genome of Denisovans, extinct relatives of Neandertals in Asia.