Neanderthal

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Neanderthal

An extinct modern Homo that lived between 230,000 and 22,000 years ago (the last known Neanderthals have been found in the Gravettian region of France). Neanderthals mostly lived in cold climates; their body proportions are similar to those of modern cold-adapted peoples: short and solid, with short limbs. Men averaged ±168 cm; their bones were thick and heavy, and showed signs of powerful muscle attachments. Neanderthals would have been quite strong by modern standards, and their skeletons show that they endured brutally hard lives.

Many Neanderthal tools and weapons have been found and they were more advanced than the tools of Homo erectus. Neanderthals were hunters, and the first Homo spp known to have buried their dead—the oldest known burial site is ±100,000 years old. Neanderthal skeletons are found throughout Europe and the Middle East. The “classic” western European Neanderthals were more robust than those found elsewhere. The average brain size, about 1450 cc, is larger than that of modern humans, but this correlated with their greater bulk; the cranial cavity is longer and lower than that of modern humans, with a marked bulge at the back.

Anatomy
Like Homo erectus, Neanderthals had a protruding jaw and receding forehead. The chin was weak, and the midfacial area also protrudes, a feature not found in Homo erectus or Homo sapiens, which may have been an adaptation to cold. Other minor anatomic differences from modern humans include peculiarities of the shoulder blade and pubic bone.
References in periodicals archive ?
A su juicio, la laringe neandertal ocupaba una posicion mas alta que en los humanos modernos, provocando una sustancial reduccion de las capacidades articulatorias de esa especie, que vetaba, por ejemplo, la produccion de las vocales /a/, /i/ y /u/, fundamentales para el habla (Lieberman, 2003: 258-262).
About 40,000 years ago, new work shows, at least three volcanoes erupted in Europe and western Asia, where most of the Neandertals lived.
From our standpoint, looking back on stories that have long since reached their conclusion, there is no doubt that the choices made by Homo erectus, Neandertal, and Cro-Magnon furthered the survival of disadvantaged members of their societies.
Attaining good coverage of the Neandertal genome had been a problem due to DNA contamination from microbes over the years," Paabo added.
The researchers then compared this ancient mitochondrial DNA with Neandertals, Denisovans, present-day humans, and apes.
Frayer and his co-authors conclude that such ratios suggest a Neandertal capacity for language.
Hawks points out that the new study tells us that many people have a distant relative that was a Neandertal.
Neandertals inhabited Europe and Asia from around 400,000 to 40,000 years ago.
She said that their identification of these pieces in secure Neandertal contexts leaves open the possibility that they have found, for the first time, evidence that Neandertals may have influenced the technology of modern humans.
They studied the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in the genomes of present-day Europeans inorder to understand why the present-day humans share more genetic variants with Neandertals.
La sucesiva obtencion del genoma completo y de una copia de excelente resolucion lograda a partir de huesos de neandertal de Okladnikov, Siberia, permitieron comprobar que nuestra especie si que se cruzo con nuestros primos hermanos geneticos.
The results mean that ancestors of people now living in the Bismarck Archipelago off Papua New Guinea mated with Neandertals as well as with Neandertal relatives called Denisovans, the scientists say online March 17 in Science.