Neanderthal

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Neanderthal

An extinct modern Homo that lived between 230,000 and 22,000 years ago (the last known Neanderthals have been found in the Gravettian region of France). Neanderthals mostly lived in cold climates; their body proportions are similar to those of modern cold-adapted peoples: short and solid, with short limbs. Men averaged ±168 cm; their bones were thick and heavy, and showed signs of powerful muscle attachments. Neanderthals would have been quite strong by modern standards, and their skeletons show that they endured brutally hard lives.

Many Neanderthal tools and weapons have been found and they were more advanced than the tools of Homo erectus. Neanderthals were hunters, and the first Homo spp known to have buried their dead—the oldest known burial site is ±100,000 years old. Neanderthal skeletons are found throughout Europe and the Middle East. The “classic” western European Neanderthals were more robust than those found elsewhere. The average brain size, about 1450 cc, is larger than that of modern humans, but this correlated with their greater bulk; the cranial cavity is longer and lower than that of modern humans, with a marked bulge at the back.

Anatomy
Like Homo erectus, Neanderthals had a protruding jaw and receding forehead. The chin was weak, and the midfacial area also protrudes, a feature not found in Homo erectus or Homo sapiens, which may have been an adaptation to cold. Other minor anatomic differences from modern humans include peculiarities of the shoulder blade and pubic bone.
References in periodicals archive ?
On the other hand, the culture-shock experienced by neandertals transported to the late twentieth century would be violent indeed.
A separate species from Homo sapiens, Neandertals were also around during the Stone Age but are now extinct.
Is it present in human and Neandertal (having occurred after the human-chimp split, but before the human-Neandertal split)?
We believe that the Neandertal genome promises to yield more insight into human biology than the sequencing of any individual human.
Washington, April 9 ( ANI ): Researchers have claimed that a new method has helped them confirm that humans and Neandertals interbred.
The team concluded that the volcanic blasts helped wiped out the local Neandertal population.
PBS Science Investigators is highlighting the commencement of the Neandertal genome project with an episode scheduled to air tonight at 8 PM ET /5 PM PT.
454 Life Sciences Corporation, a majority-owned subsidiary of CuraGen Corporation (Nasdaq: CRGN), in collaboration with scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, announced today in Leipzig, Germany the launch of a project to sequence the complete Neandertal genome.
In fact, Neandertal injuries are remarkably traumatic and frequent and have been compared with, of all people, those of modern rodeo riders--people who are in close proximity to large and unfriendly animals.
It's hard to know for sure what Neandertals used to string together the newly discovered eagle claws, Bower says.
Reassessing Paleolithic subsistence: the Neandertal and modern human foragers of Saint-Cesaire.
Matthias Meyer said that the fact that the mtDNA of the Sima de los Huesos hominin shares a common ancestor with Denisovan rather than Neandertal mtDNAs is unexpected since its skeletal remains carry Neandertal-derived features.