nasopharyngeal cancer

nasopharyngeal cancer

a malignant neoplastic disease of the nasopharynx. Depending on the site of a nasopharyngeal tumor, there may be nasal obstruction, otitis media, hearing loss, sensory or motor nerve damage, bony destruction of the skull, or deep cervical lymphadenopathy. Diagnostic measures include nasopharyngoscopy, biopsy, and radiological examination of the skull with tomographic studies. Squamous cell and undifferentiated carcinomas are the most common lesions. Nasopharyngeal cancer occurs rarely in the United States and frequently in southern China. Exposure to dusts of nickel, chromium, wood, and leather and to isopropyl oil increases the risk of developing nasopharyngeal cancer. High titers of antibodies to the Epstein-Barr virus are found in Chinese patients with the cancer, and there is evidence of genetic susceptibility, because a certain histocompatibility antigen is associated with the disease and multiple cases occur in some families. Radiation is the most effective therapy, and chemotherapy is also used.

nasopharyngeal carcinoma

A rare (in the West) malignancy which is endemic in regions of southern China—where it comprises up to 18% of cancers—as well as in southeast Asia. It is linked to EBV infection, diets high in nitrosamines and inhaled carcinogens. It is more common in males and has a peak incidence of age 40 to 50.

DiffDx
Lymphoma (DLCBL, Hodgkin's), reactive lymphoid proliferation, sarcomas.

Management
Radiotherapy, chemotherapy.

Prognosis
Stage dependant; 5-year survival is 55%.

Nasopharyngeal carcinomas (WHO, 2005)
- Keratinising squamous cell carcinoma
- Non keratinsing carcinoma
  • Differentiated
  • Undifferentiated
- Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma
- Nasopharyngeal cancer, staging
  • Stage I—Lesion confined to nasopharynx.
  • Stage II
    A) Lesion extends to oropharynx and/or nasal fossa.
    B) Lesion extends to nearby lymph nodes or to parapharyngeal region.
  • Stage III—Lesion spread to lymph nodes on both sides of the neck or nearby bones or sinuses.
  • Stage IV
    A) Spread beyond nasopharynx to other areas in head; possible spread to regional lymph nodes.
    B) Spread beyond nasopharynx to other areas in head and to lymph nodes above clavicle, or are ≥ 6 cm in greatest dimension.
    C) Metastasised.

nasopharyngeal carcinoma

Nasopharyngeal cancer A rare malignancy, which is endemic to regions of southern China and Southeast Asia; persons with serologic markers for EBV–IgA antibodies against EBV capsid antigen and/or neutralizing antibodies against EBV-specific DNase have a 3-fold cumulative risk of nasopharyngeal cancer if one marker was positive and a 35-fold risk if both markers are positive. See Epstein-Barr virus.
Nasopharyngeal cancer
Stage I Lesion confined to nasopharynx
Stage II
A  Lesion extends to oropharynx and/or nasal fossa
B  Lesion extends to nearby lymph nodes or to parapharyngeal region
Stage III Lesion spread to lymph nodes on both sides of the neck or to nearby bones or sinuses
Stage IV
A Spread beyond nasopharynx to other areas in head, and  possibly to nearby lymph nodes
B Spread beyond nasopharynx to other areas in head and to lymph nodes above clavicle or are ≥ 6 cm
C Lesion has metastasized
References in periodicals archive ?
In any case, the cancers that are associated with EBV are nasopharyngeal cancer (cancer of the area in the back of the nose), certain types of lymphomas such as Burkitt lymphoma and Hodgkin lymphoma, and some cancers of the stomach, thymus, salivary glands, and urogenital system.
M2 PHARMA-February 7, 2018-Stanford Cancer Institute Joins Tessa Therapeutics as Clinical Trial Partner in Phase III Immunotherapy Trial in Nasopharyngeal Cancer
I believe that the test is technologically ready for use for screening nasopharyngeal cancer in high-risk areas like Hong Kong," said senior researcher Dennis Lo.
Identifying novel genes and chemicals related to nasopharyngeal cancer in a heterogeneous network.
According to his agency, Korean actor Kim Woo-bin was diagnosed with nasopharyngeal cancer, K-Pop Herald reports.
For cases in oral cavity, oropharyngeal, hypopharyngeal and supraglottic, laryngeal, and nasopharyngeal cancer, they provide information on health literacy, humanistic care approaches, communication, and diagnostic and clinical issues, as well as discussing issues related to HPV (human papillomavirus), robotic or minimally invasive surgery, combined modality treatments, reflux management, the role of the speech pathologist, survivorship, caregiver burden, and unique intervention protocols for airway protection.
Detailed medical history explored external beam radiotherapy to the head and neck region for nasopharyngeal cancer 10 years ago.
Retropharyngeal nodal metastasis related to higher rate of distant metastasis in patients with NO and N1 nasopharyngeal cancer.
Recently, TBL1XR1 is reported to be overexpressed in multiple malignancies and contributes to carcinogenesis and tumor progression, including esophageal squamous cell cancer, cervical cancer, breast cancer, nasopharyngeal cancer, and hepatocellular carcinoma [10-14].
8 Salted fish - In China, rates of nasopharyngeal cancer - a rare type of head and neck cancer - are higher than anywhere else, and this has been linked to the fact that Cantonese style salted fish (a known carcinogen) is a staple part of the region's general diet.
salted fish In China, rates of nasopharyngeal cancer - a rare head and neck cancer - are highest, where known carcingen Cantonese style salted fish is a staple.
13) Besides nasopharyngeal cancer, it has also been detected in other epithelial cancers of the head and neck region including carcinoma of the palatine tonsil, supraglottic laryngeal carcinoma, salivary gland cancer, oral squamous cell carcinoma.