nitroglycerin

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nitroglycerin

 [ni″tro-glis´er-in]
a chemical well known as an explosive but also having medical uses; it is a vasodilator and is used medically especially in the prophylaxis and treatment of angina pectoris. Called also glyceryl trinitrate.

The most common means of administration has been the sublingual tablet, which is placed under the tongue when the attack occurs; it is not effective if swallowed. Under the tongue, it quickly dissolves and should give relief within 1 or 2 minutes. It may cause transient palpitation, flushing, faintness, and perhaps headache. The patient who is taking nitroglycerin should keep it nearby at all times, stored in a tightly closed dark glass container free from heat and moisture. It is not addicting and there is no limit to the number that may be taken in a 24-hour period; however, no more than three tablets should be taken at 5 minute intervals during an attack. If no relief is obtained 15 minutes after the third tablet is taken, the physician should be notified immediately.

Several alternatives to sublingual tablets have been developed that also are absorbed through the oral mucosa, including extended release buccal tablets, which are held between the lip or cheek and upper gum, and a lingual aerosol, which is sprayed on or under the tongue.

Oral administration is now also possible, by means of extended-release tablets or capsules.

Nitroglycerin is injected intravenously for prophylaxis and long-term treatment of angina pectoris, control of blood pressure during surgery or creation of controlled hypotension during surgery, and as an adjunct in the treatment of congestive heart failure.

An alternative to sublingual administration of nitroglycerin is application in an ointment to a hairless site on the body surface. Rotation of sites helps eliminate minor skin irritation which is a common problem. The drug is applied by using a manufacturer-supplied measuring applicator paper. A measured amount of ointment is squeezed onto the paper (never directly on the skin) in a thin uniform layer and the paper is placed on the site. The paper is then covered with plastic wrap and held in place with tape or an elastic bandage.

The usual dosage is a 1- to 2-inch strip, but 5-inch strips are also available. Most patients need several applications per day. The area is cleansed of any remaining ointment and a new site chosen when the next dose is due. Patients who are to use the nitroglycerin ointment at home must be given detailed instructions in its use and should be aware of its expected results and local and systemic side effects.

Nitroglycerin is also available as a transdermal patch.

ni·tro·glyc·er·in

(nī'trō-glis'ĕr-in),
An explosive, yellowish, oily fluid formed by the action of sulfuric and nitric acids on glycerin; used as a vasodilator, especially in angina pectoris; generates nitric oxide.
Synonym(s): 1, 2, 3-propanetriol trinitrate, glyceryl trinitrate, trinitroglycerin

nitroglycerin

/ni·tro·glyc·er·in/ (ni″tro-glis´er-in) an antianginal, antihypertensive, and vasodilator used for the prophylaxis and treatment of angina pectoris, the treatment of congestive heart failure and myocardial infarction, and blood pressure control or controlled hypotension during surgery.

nitroglycerin

also

nitroglycerine

(nī′trō-glĭs′ər-ĭn, -trə-)
n.
A thick, pale yellow liquid, C3H5N3O9, that is explosive on concussion or exposure to sudden heat. It is used in the production of dynamite and blasting gelatin and as a vasodilator in medicine.

nitroglycerin (nitr)

[-glis′ərin]
a potent smooth muscle relaxant and vasodilator used in transdermal patches and in a paste as well as in oral and sublingual tablets. Also called glyceryl trinitrate.
indications It is prescribed for the prevention or relief of angina pectoris. There are recommended limits to the amount of nitroglycerin use before calling for emergency assistance (no more than 3 sublingual tablets at 5-minute intervals). The drug should not be used continuously, because tolerance develops within 24 to 48 hrs. Nitroglycerin is also used to treat pulmonary hypertension, to help treat congestive heart failure following acute myocardial infarction, and to treat hypertensive emergencies during cardiovascular surgery.
contraindications Head trauma, severe anemia, narrow-angle glaucoma, and known hypersensitivity to this drug or other organic nitrates prohibit its use. It should not be used by patients taking sildenafil or similar agents for treating erectile dysfunction.
adverse effects Among the most serious adverse effects are hypotension, flushing, headache, and syncope.

nitroglycerin

Cardiology Glycerol trinitrate An organic nitrate that is a short-acting agent for treating anginal pain and CHF Side effects Headache, tachycardia, nausea, hypotension; other organic nitrates–eg, ethylene nitrate, trinitrotoluene–TNT, are used to produce explosives. See Monday death.

ni·tro·glyc·er·in

(nī'trō-glis'ĕr-in)
An explosive, yellowish, oily fluid formed by the action of sulfuric and nitric acids on glycerin; used as a vasodilator, especially in angina pectoris; generates nitric oxide.
Synonym(s): 1, 2, 3-propanetriol trinitrate, glyceryl trinitrate, trinitroglycerin.
An explosive, yellowish, oily fluid formed by the action of sulfuric and nitric acids on glycerin; used as a vasodilator.

ni·tro·glyc·er·in

(nī'trō-glis'ĕr-in)
Explosive, yellowish, oily fluid formed by action of sulfuric and nitric acids on glycerin; used as a vasodilator, especially in angina pectoris.

nitroglycerin (nī´trōglis´ərin),

n brand names: Nitrogard, Nitro-Bid, Nitrostat;
drug class: inorganic nitrate, vasodilator;
action: decreases preload/afterload, which is responsible for decreasing left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, systemic vascular resistance; arterial and venous dilation;
uses: chronic stable angina pectoris, prophylaxis of angina pain, congestive heart failure associated with acute myocardial infarction, controlled hypotension in surgical procedures. Metered spray has a longer shelf life than tablet form. Recommended for dental office or clinic emergency kits.

nitroglycerin

a chemical well known as an explosive but also a venodilator and used medically, principally in the treatment of angina pectoris in humans; called also glyceryl trinitrate.
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