NREM sleep


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Related to NREM sleep: Stages of Sleep

NREM sleep

(ĕn′rĕm′)

sleep

(slep)
A periodic state of rest accompanied by varying degrees of unconsciousness and relative inactivity. Although sleep is thought of as something that occurs once each 24-hr day, at least half of the world's population has an afternoon nap or siesta as part of their lifelong sleep-wake pattern. The need for and value of sleep is obvious; yet there is no explanation of why it provides a daily renewal of a feeling of health and well-being.

The sleep-wake cycle varies in relation to the age and gender of the individual. The newborn may sleep as much as 20 hr each day; a child, 8–14 hr, depending on age; adults, 3–12 hr with a mean of 7–8 hr, which may decrease to 6.5 hr in the elderly. Women over 35 tend to sleep more than men. There is great individual variation in the amount and depth of sleep.

Sleep has two states: non–rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. NREM sleep and REM sleep alternate during the night; each cycle requires 90–100 min. NREM sleep makes up approx. 75% of the sleep cycle, and REM sleep approx. 25%, with individual variations.

People deprived of sleep for several days or more become irritable, fatigued, unable to concentrate, and usually disoriented. Performance of mental and physical tasks deteriorates. Some people experience paranoid thoughts and auditory, visual, and tactile illusions or hallucinations. Deprivation of REM sleep may cause anxiety, overeating, and hypersexuality. The effects of sleep deprivation are reversed when the normal sleep-wake cycle is resumed. See: non–rapid eye movement sleep; rapid eye movement sleep

Physiological Changes during Sleep

The following physiological changes occur during sleep: body temperature falls; secretion of urine decreases; heart rate and respiration become slower and more regular during NREM sleep and then more rapid and less regular during REM sleep. During REM sleep, blood flow to the brain is increased; breathing is more irregular; heart rate and blood pressure vary; cerebral blood flow and metabolic rate increase; and penile erections may occur. There is an increased secretion of growth hormone during the first 2 hr of sleep; surges of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol secretion occur in the last half of the sleep period. Luteinizing hormone secretion is increased during sleep in pubescent boys and girls, and prolactin secretion is increased in men and women, esp. immediately after the onset of sleep.

In evaluating sleep, it is important to know that hand waving, arm swinging, laughing, and flatus occur during normal sleep. Snoring may be clinically insignificant but, when accompanied by apnea, can be harmful.

dreaming sleep

Rapid eye movement sleep.

desynchronized sleep

Rapid eye movement sleep.

hypnotic sleep

1. Sleep induced by hypnotic suggestion.
2. Sleep induced by the use of medicines classified as hypnotics.

CAUTION!

Many hypnotic drugs are habit-forming.

light sleep

A colloquial term for the first stage of non–rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. It is sometimes also applied to the second stage of NREM sleep.

non–rapid eye movement sleep

Abbreviation: NREM sleep
Sleep during which non–rapid eye movements occur. Dreams do not occur in NREM sleep. It has four stages: in stage 1, the transition from wakefulness to sleep occurs; eye movements are slow, and an electroencephalogram (EEG) shows low brain wave activity. In stage 2, EEG activity is increased, and spikes called K complexes appear. In stage 3, eye movement ceases; wave frequency is reduced and amplitude increased. In stage 4, the EEG is dominated by large spikes (delta rhythm). Stages 3 and 4 are considered deep sleep. Synonym: synchronized sleep See: rapid eye movement sleep; sleep

pathological sleep

Excessive or disordered sleep.

paradoxical sleep

A term sometimes used as a synonym for rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. REM sleep is the preferred term.

rapid eye movement sleep

Abbreviation: REM sleep
Sleep during which rapid eye movements occur. Dreams occur in REM sleep. It follows stage 4 of non–rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep; electroencephalographic activity is similar to that of NREM stage 1; and muscle paralysis normally occurs. Synonym: desynchronized sleep; dreaming sleep See: non–rapid eye movement sleep; sleep

synchronized sleep

Non–rapid eye movement sleep.

non–rapid eye movement sleep

Abbreviation: NREM sleep
Sleep during which non–rapid eye movements occur. Dreams do not occur in NREM sleep. It has four stages: in stage 1, the transition from wakefulness to sleep occurs; eye movements are slow, and an electroencephalogram (EEG) shows low brain wave activity. In stage 2, EEG activity is increased, and spikes called K complexes appear. In stage 3, eye movement ceases; wave frequency is reduced and amplitude increased. In stage 4, the EEG is dominated by large spikes (delta rhythm). Stages 3 and 4 are considered deep sleep. Synonym: synchronized sleep See: rapid eye movement sleep; sleep
See also: sleep

Non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep

A type of sleep that differs from rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. The four stages of NREM sleep account for 75-80% of total sleeping time.
Mentioned in: Sleep Disorders
References in periodicals archive ?
8 There is reduction in the percentage of REM and Stage 3 NREM sleep and an increase in stage 1 NREM sleep.
5), (6) In fibromyalgia, there is evidence of prolonged sleep latency (time it takes to fall asleep), low sleep efficiency (total time spent asleep while in bed), and an increased amount of stage 1 NREM sleep.
Also, REM sleep is predominantly theta wave activity in the brain, and NREM sleep is predominantly delta wave activity, a much slower level, more removed from the conscious mind's dominant beta and alpha frequency wave patterns.
With the mother in light NREM sleep, she can receive that information or other information such as distress signals.
Spontaneous limb movements occurred at intervals during sleep and especially during NREM sleep (Moldofsky et al.
NREM sleep is sub-divided into four stages, 1 through 4, scaled according to increasing depth of sleep.
It was not clear whether the changes in HS2D rats resulted from the loss of HS2 or the general disruption of NREM sleep that accompanied this loss.
On the basis of the depth of sleep, NREM sleep is subdivided into stages.
Previous studies have found links between brain activity during NREM sleep and better learning by rats and people.
Stickgold wanted to know what people were dreaming about when their eyes weren't moving, during NREM sleep.
NREM sleep accounts for 75 to 80 per cent of sleep time in adult humans and is subdivided into 4 stages (NREM stages 1 to 4) according to the traditional Rechtschaffen and Kales (R-K) (2) scoring manual.