CXCR4

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CXCR4

A gene on chromosome 2q21 that encodes a seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor belonging to the CXC chemokine receptor family, which binds specifically to stromal cell-derived factor-1, transducing a signal by increasing intracellular calcium ions and enhancing MAPK1/MAPK3 activation. It acts as a receptor for extracellular ubiquitin, is involved in haematopoiesis and in cardiac ventricular septum formation, plays a role in gastrointestinal tract vascularisation by regulating vascular branching and/or remodelling in endothelial cells, may be involved in cerebellar development and, in the CNS, may mediate hippocampal-neuron survival.

Molecular pathology
CXCR4 acts with the CD4 to support HIV entry into cells; it is highly expressed in breast cancer cells. CXCR4 mutations cause WHIM (warts, hypogammaglobulinaemia, infections, and myelokathexis) syndrome.
References in periodicals archive ?
Nitrosamine carcinogenesis in 5120 rodents: chronic administration of sixteen different concentrations of NDEA, NBMA, NPYR and NPIP in the water of 4440 inbred rats, with parallel studies on NDEA alone of the effect of age of starting (3,6, or 20 weeks) and of species (rats, mice or hamsters).
Table 1 presents data on the toxicity and carcinogenicity of five volatile NA (NDMA = N-nitrosodimethylamine, NDEA = N-nitrosodiethylamine, NPYR = N-nitrosopyrrolidine, NPIP = N-nitrosopiperidine, NDBA = N-nitrosodibuthylamine) from the literature [2, 3].
Analysis of NPYR data for different sample preparation methods used (SFE, SPE, low-temperature vacuum distillation, and mineral oil distillation) showed significant variation [20].
The following volatile NA were analysed: NDMA, NDEA, NDBA, NPYR, and NPIP.
3] times lower LOD, except for NPYR and NDMA, where the LOD values are almost equal.
The spectra of NDMA, NDEA, NDPA, NPYR, and NPIP are compared with those published in NIST Standard Reference Database [37] (see Table 1 in the Appendix).
The highest level of NPYR was detected in pork fat, most likely due to its lipophilic properties.
Nitrosamine carcinogenesis in 5120 rodents: chronic administration of sixteen different concentrations of NDEA, NDMA, NPYR and NPIP in the water of 4440 inbred rats, with parallel studies on NDEA alone of the effect of age of starting (3, 6 or 20 weeks) and of species (rats, mice, or hamsters).