CXCR4

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CXCR4

A gene on chromosome 2q21 that encodes a seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor belonging to the CXC chemokine receptor family, which binds specifically to stromal cell-derived factor-1, transducing a signal by increasing intracellular calcium ions and enhancing MAPK1/MAPK3 activation. It acts as a receptor for extracellular ubiquitin, is involved in haematopoiesis and in cardiac ventricular septum formation, plays a role in gastrointestinal tract vascularisation by regulating vascular branching and/or remodelling in endothelial cells, may be involved in cerebellar development and, in the CNS, may mediate hippocampal-neuron survival.

Molecular pathology
CXCR4 acts with the CD4 to support HIV entry into cells; it is highly expressed in breast cancer cells. CXCR4 mutations cause WHIM (warts, hypogammaglobulinaemia, infections, and myelokathexis) syndrome.
References in periodicals archive ?
13] Individual reference standards of NDBA, NDEA, NDMA and NPYR were also prepared separately for identification purposes.
All 20 mL aliquots of the traditional beer samples revealed the presence of the experimental carcinogens NDMA, NDEA and/or NPYR.
The binding mode of NPYR and the S100A2 protein had an established inhibition constant with a concentration value of 247.
mientras que la NPYR se halla sobre todo en beicon, carne, cacao y cafe.
En Estados Unidos, la Administracion de Drogas y Alimentos (ADA) ha establecido el limite maximo de 10 Mg/kg de NPYR para poder introducir productos alimenticios al mercado (Gloria et al.
Cataliza predominantemente la hidroxilacion de la cumarina, aunque tambien es responsable de la activacion metabolica de un amplio espectro de N-nitrosaminas no relacionadas estructuralmente, como la NPIP, NPYR, NDMA, NDBA o la 4-(metil-nitrosamina)-1-(3-piridil)-1-butanona (NNK) (Kushida et al.
Nitrosamine carcinogenesis in 5120 rodents: chronic administration of sixteen different concentrations of NDEA, NBMA, NPYR and NPIP in the water of 4440 inbred rats, with parallel studies on NDEA alone of the effect of age of starting (3,6, or 20 weeks) and of species (rats, mice or hamsters).
Table 1 presents data on the toxicity and carcinogenicity of five volatile NA (NDMA = N-nitrosodimethylamine, NDEA = N-nitrosodiethylamine, NPYR = N-nitrosopyrrolidine, NPIP = N-nitrosopiperidine, NDBA = N-nitrosodibuthylamine) from the literature [2, 3].
Analysis of NPYR data for different sample preparation methods used (SFE, SPE, low-temperature vacuum distillation, and mineral oil distillation) showed significant variation [20].
Las N-nitrosaminas de estructura ciclica mayoritarias en la dieta, como la NPYR y la NPIP, han demostrado ser potentes carcinogenos en bioensayos realizados con roedores, encontrandose una alta incidencia de tumoracion utilizando dosis diarias menores de 1 mg/kg de peso durante una exposicion prolongada (Eisenbrand et al.
La NPIP causa tumores en esofago, y tambien en cavidad nasal, higado y estomago, mientras que su homologa, la NPYR induce principalmente tumores en higado, pero no en esofago de ratas (Druckrey et al.
Nitrosamine carcinogenesis in 5120 rodents: chronic administration of sixteen different concentrations of NDEA, NDMA, NPYR and NPIP in the water of 4440 inbred rats, with parallel studies on NDEA alone of the effect of age of starting (3, 6 or 20 weeks) and of species (rats, mice, or hamsters).