Mycobacterium kansasii


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Related to Mycobacterium kansasii: Mycobacterium fortuitum

My·co·bac·te·ri·um kan·sa·s'i·i

a bacterial species causing a tuberculosislike pulmonary disease; found to cause rare infections (and usually lesions) in spinal fluid, spleen, liver, pancreas, testes, hip joint, knee joint, finger, wrist, and lymph nodes.

Mycobacterium kansasii

a species of slow-growing photochromogenic bacteria that causes tuberculosis-like pulmonary infection in humans. It affects the joints, gonads, spinal fluid, lymph nodes, and viscera. The incidence of this infection has increased with the advent of AIDS.

Mycobacterium kansasii

A mycobacterium that may involve any body site, but primarily the lungs; dissemination is rare and is typically an opportunistic infection in immunocompromised (e.g., AIDS) or immuosuppressed (e.g., post-transplant) hosts.
 
Clinical findings
Healthy host
• Pulmonary—Cough, sputum, weight loss, SOB, chest pain haemoptysis, fever or sweats.
• Cutaneous—Sporotrichosis-like with local lymphatic spread; lesions include nodules, pustules, verrucous lesions, erythematous plaques, abscesses, and ulcers.

Immunocompromised host
• Appears late in HIV disease, most commonly affecting the lungs, accompanied by fever, chills, night sweats, productive or nonproductive cough, weight loss, fatigue, dyspnoea, and chest pain. Nearly 20% of patients with HIV and M kansasii infection eventually develop disseminated disease.
• M kansasii meningitis, like M tuberculosis meningitis, has a high mortality rate despite appropriate antibiotic therapy.
• M kansasii bacteremia, pericarditis with cardiac tamponade, oral ulcers, chronic sinusitis, osteomyelitis, have been reported in AIDS patients.
• Disseminated M kansasii infection also occurs in other immunocompromised hosts (e.g., with myelodysplastic syndrome, haemodialysis) in whom cutaneous involvemenet has clinically (e.g., cellulitis, seroma) and histologically (e.g., absence of granuloma) aypical, which may delay the diagnosis.

Epidemiology
Traditionally regarded as an infection of those with a higher income and standard of living, it also affects those in lower socioeconomic strata.

Frequency
2.4 cases/105/year in the general population; 115 cases/105/year in those with HIV infection; 647 cases/105/year in those with AIDS.
 
Management
Rifampin, rifabutin, ethambutol, ethionamide, amikacin, streptomycin, clarithromycin, sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin; a three-agent regimen is recommended.

Mycobacterium kansasii

Infectious disease A mycobacterium that may involve any body site, but primarily lungs; dissemination is rare and associated with immunocompromise or immuosuppression Management INH, ethambutol; antibiotic resistance is uncommon

My·co·bac·te·ri·um kan·sasi·i

(mī'kō-bak-tēr'ē-ŭm kan-zas'ē-ī)
A bacterial species causing a tuberculosislike pulmonary disease; also found to cause infections (and usually lesions) in meninges, spleen, liver, pancreas, testes, hip joint, knee joint, finger, wrist, and lymph nodes.

Mycobacterium

the only genus in the family Mycobacteriaceae of bacteria; slender acid-fast rods which may be straight or slightly curved. They may produce filaments or cocci. The most serious disease caused by members of this genus is tuberculosis. M. fortuitum, M. chelonea, M. marinum are listed as causes of piscine tuberculosis. Other species, including M. aquae, M. kansasii and M. scrofulaceum, may occasionally cause disease in a number of different species.

Mycobacterium avium
found mostly in birds but occasionally also in other animals and in humans. The tubercle bacillus of birds, it causes avian tuberculosis.
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis
causes Johne's disease in cattle, sheep, goats, deer and camelids. Previously called M. johnei and M. paratuberculosis.
Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare
complex see M. intracellulare (below).
Mycobacterium bovis
the tubercle bacillus of the bovine, it causes tuberculosis in many animal species and humans.
Mycobacterium chelonei, Mycobacterium fortuitum, Mycobacterium phlei, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycobacterium thermoresistible
cause disease in a number of animal species, including mastitis in cattle and cutaneous mycobacterial granuloma in cats and dogs. See also opportunist (atypical) mycobacteria.
Mycobacterium farcinogenes, Mycobacterium senegalense
associated with bovine farcy.
Mycobacterium genovense
causes mycobacteriosis in birds.
Mycobacterium intracellulare
found in tuberculin-positive cattle and causes limited lymph node lesions in pigs. Closely related to M. avium and also described as M. avium-intracellulare complex.
Mycobacterium johnei
see M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis (above).
Mycobacterium kansasii
causes tuberculosis-like disease in pigs, deer and cattle.
Mycobacterium leprae
the cause of leprosy in humans.
Mycobacterium lepraemurium
causes murine and feline leprosy.
Mycobacterium marinum
found in water, it causes tuberculosis in fish and skin ulcers in humans.
Mycobacterium microti
the vole bacillus; lesions sometimes occur in other species.
Mycobacterium paratuberculosis
previously called M. johnei. See M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis (above).
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
the tubercle bacillus of humans, but found also in monkeys and pigs, and rarely in cattle, dogs and parrots.
Mycobacterium ulcerans
causes skin ulcers in humans and cats.
Mycobacterium xenopi
causes mycobacterial granuloma in cats and lymph node lesions in pigs.
References in periodicals archive ?
Clinical and radiological features of Mycobacterium kansasii infection and Mycobacterium simae infection.
Mycobacterium kansasii is relatively drug-resistant on in vitro sensitivity studies.
Mycobacterium kansasii is an uncommon but persistent infection that requires a high index of suspicion to be diagnosed.
Sanger JR, Stampfl DA, Franson TR Recurrent granulomatous synovitis due to Mycobacterium kansasii in renal transplant recipient.
AFB -Positive Organism Patients Specimens Smears Mycobacterium kansasii 71 5 0 64 3 0 Mycobacterium avium complex 67 3 3 68 3 0 Mycobacterium gordonae 56 3 3 No.
Mortality prediction in pulmonary Mycobacterium kansasii infection and human immunodeficiency virus.
Comparative in vitro activities of linezolid, telithromycin, clarithromycin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin and four conventional drugs against Mycobacterium kansasii.
Pulmonary Mycobacterium kansasii infection in Israel, 1999-2004: clinical features, drug susceptibility, and outcome.
Reduced pyrazinamidase activity and the natural resistance of Mycobacterium kansasii to the antituberculosis drug pyrazinamide.

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