We hypothesized that shade would affect the intensity of mutualism
by increasing the number of leafhopper nymphs and tending ants on gamagrass Tripsacum dactyloides L.
Because studying this mutualism
in wild collared peccary is difficult, feeding trials of captive individuals would seem a worthwhile avenue for future research.
This type of ant-tree mutualism
is common throughout the tropics, where a variety of trees produce speciali7ed structures to feed and/or house ants.
This means that mutualisms
that have survived past climate change events may still be vulnerable to anthropogenic climate change," he added.
and pollen specialization among bees.
Browne and others like him, from whatever perspective, recognize the importance of true mutualism
for corporations and society.
where seeds are dispersed by animals is one kind of interaction that might be particularly vulnerable to disturbance, whether that disturbance is caused by invasive species (Bond and Slingsby 1985; Zettler and others 2001; Christian 2001) or by habitat alteration that shifts the composition of species (Andersen and Morrison 1998).
In addition, the mutualisms
may not always be specific but may be more general, with plants and caterpillars sharing ants of different species.
If this idea were confirmed, it may be the first example of a mutualism
that changes function during host development.
Sitting in the dark waiting for a gray moth might not thrill everyone, Kiers says, "but for a scientist studying mutualisms
, spotting the moth is like seeing a Siberian tiger in the wild.
The role of mycorrhizal symbiosis in plant invasions has been evaluated mainly in the light of Resistance Hypothesis (indirect effect of not having appropriate mutualists is that the invader is repelled from areas) [Mack, 1996], Enhanced Mutualisms
Hypothesis (invasion at a biogeographical scale is facilitated by mutualists with strong beneficial effects) [Reinhart & Callaway, 2006], Mutualisms
Hypothesis [Richardson et al.
At the opposite end of the spectrum from pathogenicity, mutualisms
are extraordinary in their variety and ubiquity and will constitute the principal kind of symbiosis covered in this review.