antibiotic resistance

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antibiotic resistance

Infectious disease The relative or complete ability of an organism–bacterium, fungus to counteract the desired bacteriocidal or bacteriostatic effect of one or more antimicrobial agents

antibiotic resistance

The natural tendency for bacteria, under the processes of natural selection in an antibiotic-rich environment, to evolve in such a way as to become capable of surviving in spite of these drugs. Antibiotic resistance is a rapidly increasing problem largely as a result of worldwide misuse and overuse of antibiotics in conditions that do not require them. See also ANTIBIOTIC-RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCI.

antibiotic resistance,

n the ability of certain strains of microorganisms to develop resistance to antibiotics.


1. destructive of life.
2. a chemical substance produced by a microorganism that has the capacity, in dilute solutions, to kill (biocidal activity) or inhibit the growth (biostatic activity) of other microorganisms. Antibiotics that are sufficiently nontoxic to the host are used as chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of infectious diseases. See also antimicrobial.
3. used as feed additives to animals as growth promotants.

anthracycline a's
a group of antibiotics which have a tetracycline ring structure substituted with the sugar daunosamine. Includes the antineoplastic drugs doxorubicin and daunorubicin.
antineoplastic antibiotic
bactericidal antibiotic
one that kills bacteria.
bacteriostatic antibiotic
one that suppresses the growth of bacteria.
broad-spectrum antibiotic
one that is effective against a wide range of bacteria.
antibiotic detection
on-farm and prepackaged laboratory tests available for testing farm products and animal tissues and fluids for antibiotic residues.
antibiotic drugs
the range includes the following groups: penicillin, aminoglycoside, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, macrolide, nitrofuran, cephalosporins, and a miscellaneous group including bacitracin, tyrothricin, polymyxin, colistin.
antibiotic feed additives
see feed additives.
first generation antibiotic
one produced as a natural product, e.g. penicillin G. See second generation antibiotic (below).
antibiotic food preservation
is a satisfactory technique but very strictly controlled because of the problem of residues in the food. Used mostly for the preservation of fish.
antibiotic-induced diarrhea
see pseudomembranous colitis, acute undifferentiated diarrhea of the horse.
antibiotic residue in food
in human food of animal origin is a seriously regarded pollution in public health surveillance. The residues may arise from systemic administration, or even after absorption from a local site such as the uterus, but the most serious contamination arises from milk from quarters that have been treated for mastitis. It is essential for the safety of the human population, the financial well-being of the farmer and the professional reputation of the veterinarian that antibacterial withdrawal times are observed.
antibiotic resistance
see antimicrobial resistance.
second generation antibiotic
produced by manipulation of the molecular structure of a first generation antibiotic (see above) so that the metabolism and pharmacodynamics of the original compound are significantly altered.
antibiotic sensitivity test
see antimicrobial sensitivity test.
antibiotic therapy
antibiotics vary in their absorption from the alimentary tract, requiring some, e.g. streptomycin, to be given parenterally for systemic effect, freedom from toxicity, the range of bacteria against which they are effective, their capacity to stimulate resistance and whether they are bacteriostatic or bactericidal in their effects. Selection of the most suitable antibiotic to suit a particular circumstance may be guided by an antimicrobial sensitivity test, knowledge of the infection present and the price of the drug. In many instances, because of lack of knowledge of the infection present it is necessary to choose an agent with a broad antibacterial spectrum.
antibiotic withdrawal, antibiotic withholding
see antibacterial withdrawal time.

Patient discussion about antibiotic resistance

Q. Are superbugs contagious through the air? Last week we visited my dad in the hospital, and we noticed that on the next room’s door there was a warning sign. After asking, we were told it was a denoting that the patient inside had a superbug (called klebsiella). On our way out we passed against this patient in the hallway – is it possible that I also carry this superbag? Is it dangerous?

A. Usually these bacteria are transmitted from person to person through direct contact, and less through the air. Moreover, these germs are dangerous in ill and debilitated patients, and not in normal healthy individuals.

Q. Why Is it Important to Not Use Antibiotics Often? Why is my doctor always so reluctant to prescribe me antibiotics?

A. Antibiotic resistance has become a serious problem in both developed and underdeveloped nations. By 1984 half of those with active tuberculosis in the United States had a strain that resisted at least one antibiotic. In certain settings, such as hospitals and some childcare locations, the rate of antibiotic resistance is so high that the usual, low-cost antibiotics are virtually useless for treatment of frequently seen infections. This leads to more frequent use of newer and more expensive compounds, which in turn leads to the rise of resistance to those drugs. A struggle to develop new antibiotics ensues to prevent losing future battles against infection. Therefore the doctors try to avoid using antibiotics when it is not necessary, and try to keep a certain limited use of these medications.

More discussions about antibiotic resistance
References in periodicals archive ?
Enterobacter Bacteremia: Clinical Features, Risk Factors for Multiresistance and Mortality in a Chinese University Hospital.
Multiresistance, beta-lactamase-encoding genes and bacterial diversity in hospital wastewater in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
39% to cephalothin (Table 1); 9%-14% of the isolates showed multiresistance to one or more of the following antibiotics: ampicillin, erythromycin, tetracycline, dicloxacillin, and trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole, which are the basic antibiotics used in Mexico for the treatment of listeriosis (Table 2).
Given the alarming development of increasing multiresistance, the India government has offered $100 million to bolster clinics and public health programs for TB treatment.
Undetected importation of multiresistant strains from foreign countries can also considerably accelerate the diffusion of this multiresistance phenomenon.
Keywords: Antibiotic multiresistance Antimicrobial activity Klebsiella pneumoniae Plectranthus amboinicus
Studies on Salmonella Typhi from nine of countries showed a high proportion of multiresistance in some countries especially in Central Africa and highlight the need to improve surveillance through national laboratories networks.
The global multiresistance scene has been summarized by Cars (18).
Pour les chercheurs de l'UQAM, les applications de la RMN seront multiples : developpement de vaccins synthetiques, synthese de molecules bioactives pour le traitement de la fibrose kystique, synthese d'agents visant a renverser la multiresistance aux medicaments, synthese d'agents antiviraux et anticancers, de meme qu'une meilleure comprehension des maladies neurodegeneratives et des effets secondaires cardiotoxiques de certains medicaments.
Also well documented is the ability of multiresistance serotypes to spread internationally and to become predominant clones in multiple geographic areas (14-16).
The microoorganism produce numerous toxins that are responsible for diverse syndromes and life-threatening diseases, as the staphylococci are well known for their multiresistance to antimicrobial drugs [24, 25].