4] Nonstandard abbreviations: 2D-PAGE, 2-dimension polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis; MBL, mannose-binding lectin; TBS, tris-based saline; MCP, monocyte chemoattractant protein; MIG, monokine
induced by gamma-interferon; MIP, macrophage inflammatory protein; TNF, tumor necrosis factor; TECK, thymus expressed chemokine; IFN, interferons; IL, interleukin; TGF, transforming growth factor; CNTF, ciliary neutropic factor; EGF, epidermal growth factor; ICAM, intercellular adhesion molecule; IGFBP, insulin-like growth factor binding proteins; BMP, bone morphogenetics protein.
6] Nonstandard abbreviations: SARS, severe acute respiratory syndrome; CoV, coronavirus; ICU, intensive care unit; ARDS, acute respiratory distress syndrome; IP-10, interferon-y-inducible protein-10 (CXCL-10); IL, interleukin; MIG, interferon-y-induced monokine
(CXCL9); MCP-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (CCL2); LD, lactate dehydrogenase; RANTES, regulated upon activation normal T cell expressed and secreted (CCL5); MoM, multiples) of the median; IQR, interquarfile range; and IFN-[gamma], interferon-[gamma].
While GPE inhibited the monocytes/macrophage response, propolis decreased both monokines
and interferon [gamma] (IFN[gamma]) production.
Under the definition of peptide hormones superfamily, they are defined as the intercellular messengers like adipokines (adiponectin, leptin, resistin), cytokines (chemokines, hematopoietic growth factors, hepatocyte growth factor, interferons, interleukines, lymphokines, monokines
, osteopontin, transforming growth factor beta, TNF), endothelial growth factors, endothelins, fibroblast growth factor, quinines (bradykinin, kininogens, tachykinin) and platelet derived growth factor (see, http://www.
Immune system cells function is regulated by the action of specific molecules called cytokines, mainly lymphokines and monokines
Cytokines--Include lymphokines, monokines
, and other polypeptides that regulate immunologic, inflammatory, and reparative host responses.
Jelkmann W, Page H, Wolff M, et al: Monokines
inhibiting erythropoietin production in human hepatoma cultures and in isolated perfused rat kidneys.
1985 Corticotropin-releasing activity of monokines