When a large phage outbreak happens it can shut down a plant for a few days," says Moineau.
Moineau estimates that, depending on the dairy factory, up to 10 per cent of these cultured milk batches are spoiled by phage outbreaks.
Some phage-resistant bacteria don't make good tasting cheese, and sometimes you think your bacterium is resistant but there's a new phage that emerges and infects that strain," notes Moineau.
We can target it at any gene of interest, for example to change the cheese's flavour, or to make health-promoting bacteria or products," says Moineau.
This vector gives the Canadian dairy industry a tool to transform lactic acid bacteria in a food grade manner," says Moineau, an associate professor in Laval's department of biochemistry and microbiology.
Moineau is keenly aware that saying genetically modified cheese won't make everyone smile.
But no one has actually made the move to put one of these on the market," says Moineau.
At the guilty plea hearing, a federal prosecutor stated that the government was prepared to offer evidence that Edward Moineau knowingly received and used Social Security benefits sent to his deceased mother, causing over the years an overpayment by the Department of Health and Human Services of $34,004.
Moineau faces a maximum penalty of 10 years imprisonment and a fine of $250,000, or both.