mitomycin

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mitomycin

 [mi″to-mi´sin]
1. any of a group of antitumor antibiotics (e.g., mitomycin A, B, C) produced by Streptomyces caespitosus.
2. mitomycin C, which inhibits DNA and RNA synthesis by causing cross-linking of DNA. It is effective against cancers of the breast, lung, cervix, bladder, and gastrointestinal tract but because of its toxicity is mainly used for palliative treatment of patients who have not responded to other treatment. Administered intravenously.

mitomycin

Mutamycin

Pharmacologic class: Antitumor antibiotic

Therapeutic class: Antineoplastic

Pregnancy risk category C

FDA Box Warning

• Give under supervision of physician experienced in cancer chemotherapy, in facility with adequate diagnostic and treatment resources.

• Most common and severe toxic effect is bone marrow suppression.

• Some patients receiving systemic drug have experienced hemolytic uremic syndrome, a serious complication consisting primarily of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and irreversible renal failure. Syndrome may arise at any time during systemic therapy, but most cases occur at doses of 60 mg or higher. Blood product transfusion may exacerbate symptoms.

Action

Selectively inhibits DNA synthesis by causing cross-linking of DNA strands and suppressing RNA and protein synthesis, resulting in cell death

Availability

Injection: 5-mg, 20-mg, and 40-mg vials

Indications and dosages

Disseminated adenocarcinoma of stomach or pancreas (given with other chemotherapeutic agents); palliative treatment when other therapies fail

Adults: 20 mg/m2 I.V. as a single dose. Repeat cycle q 6 to 8 weeks, adjusting dosage if necessary.

Dosage adjustment

• Reduced white blood cell or platelet count

Contraindications

• Hypersensitivity to drug
• Thrombocytopenia, coagulation disorders, increased bleeding tendency

Precautions

Use cautiously in:
• active infections, decreased bone marrow reserve, impaired hepatic function
• history of pulmonary disorders
• elderly patients
• pregnant or breastfeeding patients.

Administration

Follow facility policy for handling, administering, and disposing of mutagenic, teratogenic, and carcinogenic drugs.
• Reconstitute 5-mg vial with 10 ml of sterile water. Shake, let mixture stand, and administer by direct I.V. injection through Y-tube or three-way stopcock. Infuse over 5 to 10 minutes through line with running infusion of normal saline solution or dextrose 5% in water.

Avoid extravasation and contact with skin, mucous membranes, and eyes.

Adverse reactions

GI: nausea, vomiting, anorexia, mouth ulcers, stomatitis

GU: renal failure, hemolytic uremic syndrome

Hematologic: anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia

Respiratory: pulmonary toxicity, interstitial pneumonitis

Skin: reversible alopecia; pruritus; desquamation; phlebitis, necrosis, and sloughing with I.V. site extravasation

Other: fever

Interactions

Drug-drug.Live-virus vaccines: decreased antibody response to vaccine, increased risk of adverse reactions

Other antineoplastics: additive bone marrow depression

Vinca alkaloids: respiratory toxicity

Patient monitoring

Closely monitor CBC with white cell differential and platelet count. Stay alert for evidence of blood dyscrasias.
• Assess kidney function tests. Measure fluid intake and output and evaluate fluid balance.

Watch for signs and symptoms of hemolytic uremic syndrome (irritability, fatigue, pallor, and decreased urinary output).

Closely monitor I.V. site and skin integrity to prevent extravasation.

Assess respiratory status carefully to detect severe pulmonary problems.

Patient teaching

Teach patient to recognize and immediately report signs and symptoms of hemolytic uremic syndrome, blood dyscrasias, and renal failure.

Instruct patient to report cough or shortness of breath, even if it occurs several months after therapy ends.
• Advise patient to limit exposure to infections and to avoid live vaccines.
• Tell patient drug may cause hair loss. Discuss options for dealing with this problem.
• As appropriate, review all other significant and life-threatening adverse reactions and interactions, especially those related to the drugs mentioned above.

mi·to·my·cin

(mī'tō-mī'sin),
Antibiotic produced by Streptomyces caespitosus, variants of which are designated mitomycin A, mitomycin B, etc.; mitomycin C is an antineoplastic agent and a bacteriocide; inhibits DNA synthesis.

mitomycin

/mi·to·my·cin/ (mi″to-mi´sin)
1. any of a group of antitumor antibiotics (e.g., mitomycin A, B, C) produced by Streptomyces caespitosus.
2. mitomycin C; used as a palliative antineoplastic.

mitomycin

(mī′tə-mī′sĭn)
n.
Any of a group of antibiotics produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces caespitosus that inhibit DNA synthesis and are used against bacteria and cancerous tumor cells.

mitomycin

[mītəmī′sin]
an antineoplastic antibiotic.
indications It is prescribed in the treatment of malignant neoplastic diseases, including disseminated adenocarcinoma of the stomach and pancreas, bladder cancer, and colon cancer.
contraindications Clotting deficiency, thrombocytopenia, or known hypersensitivity to this drug prohibits its use.
adverse effects The most serious adverse effect is bone marrow depression. GI disturbances, alopecia, and skin reactions commonly occur.

mitomycin

Oncology An antineoplastic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces caespitosus, which acts as an alkylating agent and cross-links DNA, thereby inhibiting DNA synthesis Indications Leukemia

mi·to·my·cin

(mī'tō-mī'sin)
Antibiotic produced by Streptomyces caespitosus, variants of which are designated mitomycin A, mitomycin B, C, which is an antineoplastic agent and a bacteriocide; inhibits DNA synthesis.

mitomycin, mitomycin C

a group of highly toxic antineoplastics (mitomycin A, B and C) produced by Streptomyces caespitosus, indicated for palliative treatment of certain neoplasms that do not respond to surgery, radiation and other drugs.
References in periodicals archive ?
0verexpression of thioredoxin in Fanconi anemia fibroblasts prevents the cytotoxic and ONA damaging effect of mitomycin C and diepoxybutane.