electron transport chain

(redirected from Mitochondrial electron transport chain)

e·lec·tron trans·port chain

(ĕ-lek'tron trans'pōrt chān)
The final common pathway in aerobic (oxidative) metabolism. Oxygen is a cofactor.

electron transport chain

The stage of cellular respiration in which the most adenosine triphosphate is generated. In this biochemical reaction, electrons are passed along the cytochromes of a cell or mitochondrial membrane and are ultimately accepted by oxygen, producing water. Hydrogen ions (protons) are transported across the membrane. The source of the protons and electrons is primarily nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, which is recycled during the reaction.
Synonym: cytochrome transport system
See also: chain

electron transport chain

a group of specific carrier molecules in the inner mitochondrial membrane that transfer electrons from hydrogen to oxygen. Electrochemical energy generated via electron transport is transferred to ADP to reform ATP. See also oxidative phosphorylation.
References in periodicals archive ?
Raxone (idebenone), a synthetic short-chain benzoquinone and a cofactor for the enzyme NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1), is capable of transferring electrons directly onto complex III of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, thereby circumventing the complex I defect, reducing and scavenging ROS and restoring cellular energy levels in retinal ganglion cells and promoting recovery of visual acuity.
Furthermore, pharmaceuticals can interfere with the absorption of nutrients that the mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes need for proper function.
They identified three genetic pathways that appear to be involved: the TCP-1 ring complex chaperonin, which helps proteins fold; mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes (mETC); and a suite of genes responsible for the body's circadian rhythm.
Boveris and Chance (10) in 1973 demonstrated that large amounts of superoxide anions were generated by the mitochondrial electron transport chain during the oxidative phosphorylation phase of the Kreb's cycle, whereby complex I and II reduced coenzyme [Q.
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), a component of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, is well characterized as a neuroprotective antioxidant in animal models and human trials of Huntington's disease and Parkinson's disease, and reduces plaque burden in A[beta]PP/PS1 mice.
Our lab is using the Seahorse XF to help explore the specific mitochondrial electron transport chain deficiencies observed in a novel human Parkinson's Disease cell model.
Rotenone has been investigated thoroughly and has been shown to kill neuronal cells via oxidative damage after the inhibition of electron transfer in the mitochondrial electron transport chain.
The mitochondrial electron transport chain (7) consists of five enzyme complexes.
To examine cell viability and activity of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, the dye MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] was used (Bruggisser et al.
Propofol-induced impairment of the mitochondrial electron transport chain has been observed in isolated heart preparations (16).
10]), the predominant ubiquinone species in humans, functions as an electron carrier in the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) and as an intracellular antioxidant (1).
Damage to the mitochondrial electron transport chain has been suggested as an important factor in the pathogenesis of a range of psychiatric disorders.

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