mitochondrial DNA

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mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA),

species of DNA present in mitochondria, where it participates in energy metabolism, rather than in the nucleus.

mitochondrial DNA

n. Abbr. mtDNA
DNA that is contained in the mitochondria of eukaryotic cells and is inherited maternally.

mitochondrial DNA

A small circular DNA molecule of which all MITOCHONDRIA in cells have several copies. It contains 16,569 base pairs and 37 genes. Being present in the cytoplasm of the cell, is transmitted exclusively by the mother. A mature ovum contains about 100,000 copies of mitochondrial DNA; sperms contain none. The genome has been completely sequenced. Its main function is to code for enzymes needed by the mitochondrion. The sites of common mutations, especially deletions, are known as are a number of diseases caused by these defects in the mitochondrial DNA. See MITOCHONDRIAL DNA DISEASES.

mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)

the DNA GENOME in the MITOCHONDRION that codes for a number of the organelle's functions. The genome is replicated and transcribed by a separate set of ENZYMES from those of the eukaryotic cell NUCLEUS. In METAZOANS the mtDNA is generally circular, and there appear to be no INTRONS. The GENETIC CODE shows differences from the universal code.
References in periodicals archive ?
Accuracy of the real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction method for measurement of mitochondrial DNA copy number
Reference range of mitochondrial DNA copy number in peripheral blood
The relationship between leukocyte mitochondrial DNA copy number and telomere length in community-dwelling elderly women.
The association between leukocyte telomere length and mitochondrial DNA copy number in pregnant women: a pilot study.
The mitochondrial DNA copy number of this calibrator was determined by division of the total DNA concentration by the weight of each plasmid molecule.
Simultaneous A8344G heteroplasmy and mitochondrial DNA copy number quantification in myoclonus epilepsy and ragged-red fibers (MERRF) syndrome by a multiplex molecular beacon based real-time fluorescence PCR.
Another parameter evaluated to study mitochondria status was the mitochondrial DNA content, measured as the amount of mitochondrial DNA copy number normalized to nuclear DNA copy number [19].
The implications of mitochondrial DNA copy number regulation during embryogenesis.
Increased mitochondrial DNA copy number in occupations associated with low-dose benzene exposure.
In addition, the high passage normobilirubinemic, but not hyperbilirubinemic cells, showed several signs of mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress: the respiration of normobilirubinemic cells was lower (Figure 4(b)) while mitochondrial DNA copy number per cell, a marker of mitochondrial abundance, was similar between all four groups (Figure 4(c)), suggesting that the difference was not due to different level of mitochondrial biogenesis but rather due to differences in the quality of mitochondria.
Reduced mitochondrial DNA copy number is correlated with tumor progression and prognosis in Chinese breast cancer patients.
OBJECTIVES: Our goals were to determine in a large multicenter cross-sectional study whether low-level benzene is associated with increased blood mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn, a biological oxidative response to mitochondrial DNA damage and dysfunction) and to explore potential links between mtDNAcn and leukemia-related epigenetic markers.

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