mitochondrial DNA

Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Legal, Acronyms, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.
Related to mitochondrial DNA: Mitochondrial disease

mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA),

species of DNA present in mitochondria, where it participates in energy metabolism, rather than in the nucleus.

mitochondrial DNA

n. Abbr. mtDNA
DNA that is contained in the mitochondria of eukaryotic cells and is inherited maternally.

mitochondrial DNA

A small circular DNA molecule of which all MITOCHONDRIA in cells have several copies. It contains 16,569 base pairs and 37 genes. Being present in the cytoplasm of the cell, is transmitted exclusively by the mother. A mature ovum contains about 100,000 copies of mitochondrial DNA; sperms contain none. The genome has been completely sequenced. Its main function is to code for enzymes needed by the mitochondrion. The sites of common mutations, especially deletions, are known as are a number of diseases caused by these defects in the mitochondrial DNA. See MITOCHONDRIAL DNA DISEASES.

mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)

the DNA GENOME in the MITOCHONDRION that codes for a number of the organelle's functions. The genome is replicated and transcribed by a separate set of ENZYMES from those of the eukaryotic cell NUCLEUS. In METAZOANS the mtDNA is generally circular, and there appear to be no INTRONS. The GENETIC CODE shows differences from the universal code.
References in periodicals archive ?
The Mitox(TM) products measure mitochondrial DNA and RNA in clinical samples with unmatched accuracy.
Peopling of the Americas founder by four major lineages of mitochondrial DNA, Molecular Biology and Evolution 10 (1993): 23-47; Antonio Torroni and D.
Primagen has two marketed molecular product lines; Retina Mitox products measure mitochondrial DNA or RNA in clinical samples with unmatched accuracy and predict the onset of clinical symptoms as a result of mitochondrial toxicity.
Segregation of the G8993 mutant mitochondrial DNA through generations and embryonic tissues in a family at risk of Leigh syndrome.
Michael Lin of the university reported supporting evidence of links between mitochondrial DNA damage, aging, and neurodegenerative disorders.
Mitochondrial DNA differs from nuclear DNA in its location, its quantity in the cell, its mode of inheritance, and its sequence.
Unlike chromosomal DNA, which is an equal blend of genetic material from the mother and father, mitochondrial DNA is handed down only by the mother.
Since mitochondria provide cells with energy, however, and since the expression of a cell's nuclear DNA is affected by its cytoplasm, modifying an egg's mitochondrial DNA could have a range of phenotypic effects.
Using the new tests, which were approved for use only in 1995, the Pentagon compared a sample of mitochondrial DNA removed from the pelvis last month with samples from maternal relatives of eight of the nine.
Indeed, since the percentage of mutant mitochondrial DNAs (see Glossary on page 50) can differ among individuals in the same family and even among tissues of the same individual, the same mitochondrial DNA mutation can cause different symptoms even in members of the same family.
Mitotyping is devoted to the forensic applications of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis and operates out of State College, Pennsylvania.

Full browser ?