Mirror Self-Recognition

The ability to recognise oneself as an individual; lower animals, in particular birds, often attack mirrors, as the image is perceived to be that of another animal
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Alexandra Horowitz, the research's leader, wrote in her report: "While domestic dogs, Canis familiaris, have been found to be skillful at social cognitive tasks and even some metacognitive tasks, they have not passed the test of mirror self-recognition (MSR).
Furthermore, there is a lack of direct empirical evidences that support the association between the mirror self-recognition and a theory of mind (Nielsen & Dissanayake, 2004).
Based on her investigations, using the lipstick procedure in many cultures, the author concludes that the mirror self-recognition test is the best measure for self-referential behavior, and an indicator of self construction.
It has long been realized that dolphins rank among the most intelligent mammals, and they can do many things that great apes can do such as mirror self-recognition, communication, mimicry, and cultural transmission," Discovery news quoted Michael McGowen, lead author of the study, as saying.
Some elephants exhibit mirror self-recognition (MSR).
Until recently, the only creatures to conclusively show mirror self-recognition were mammals: humans, great apes, dolphins and elephants.
The failure of monkeys to "pass" the well-known mirror self-recognition test has fostered the belief that these animals have no concept of self.
Studies of mirror self-recognition (MSR) confirm that, "by 4 months of age, infants showed signs of self-other discrimination in specular images" (Rochat and Striano 42), but intriguingly, a 2003 study by Mark Nielsen, Cheryl Dissanayake, and Yoshi Kashima also showed that "prior to the second year (i.
In this view, the development of the self is a continuous, incremental process and mirror self-recognition is nothing more than a step along the pathway--"me" evolves from "I.
Mirror self-recognition tests, which involve marking an animal with a spot that can be inspected or touched only by looking in a mirror, can be tricky to interpret, Pepperberg adds.
Previous research had shown that rhesus monkeys consistently failed in the mirror self-recognition test, an important test of self-awareness, but like apes and dolphins, they did seem to possess the ability to monitor their own mental states.
These include mirror self-recognition, cultural learning, comprehension of symbol-based communication systems, and an understanding of abstract concepts.