Mirapex


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Related to Mirapex: Restless Leg Syndrome

pramipexole

(pra-mi-pex-ole) ,

Mirapex

(trade name),

Mirapex ER

(trade name)

Classification

Therapeutic: antiparkinson agents
Pharmacologic: dopamine agonists
Pregnancy Category: C

Indications

Management of Parkinson’s disease.Restless leg syndrome (immediate-release only).

Action

Stimulates dopamine receptors in the striatum of the brain.

Therapeutic effects

Decreased tremor and rigidity in Parkinson’s disease.
Decreased leg restlessness.

Pharmacokinetics

Absorption: >90% absorbed following oral administration.
Distribution: Widely distributed.
Metabolism and Excretion: 90% excreted unchanged in urine.
Half-life: 8 hr (↑ in geriatric patients and patients with renal impairment).

Time/action profile (blood levels)

ROUTEONSETPEAKDURATION
POunknown2 hr8 hr
PO-ERunknown6 hr24 hr

Contraindications/Precautions

Contraindicated in: Hypersensitivity.
Use Cautiously in: Renal impairment (↑ dosing interval recommended if CCr <60 mL/min [immediate-release] or CCr <50 mL/min [extended-release]); Obstetric / Lactation / Pediatric: Safety not established; Geriatric: ↑ risk of hallucinations.

Adverse Reactions/Side Effects

Central nervous system

  • sleep attacks (life-threatening)
  • amnesia (most frequent)
  • dizziness (most frequent)
  • drowsiness (most frequent)
  • hallucinations (most frequent)
  • weakness (most frequent)
  • abnormal dreams
  • confusion
  • dyskinesia
  • extrapyramidal syndrome
  • headache
  • insomnia
  • urges (gambling, sexual)

Cardiovascular

  • orthostatic hypotension

Dermatologic

  • melanoma
  • pruritis

Endocrinologic

  • SIADH

Gastrointestinal

  • constipation (most frequent)
  • dry mouth (most frequent)
  • dyspepsia (most frequent)
  • nausea (most frequent)
  • tooth disease

Genitourinary

  • urinary frequency

Musculoskeletal

  • leg cramps

Neurologic

  • hypertonia
  • unsteadiness/falling

Interactions

Drug-Drug interaction

Concurrent levodopa ↑ risk of hallucinations and dyskinesia.Effectiveness may be ↑ by cimetidine.Effectiveness may be ↓ by dopamine antagonists, including butyrophenones, metoclopramide, phenothiazines, or thioxanthenes.

Route/Dosage

When switching from immediate-release to extended-release product, the same total daily dose can be used.

Parkinson's Disease

Oral (Adults) Immediate-release—0.125 mg 3 times daily initially; may be ↑ q 5–7 days (range 1.5–4.5 mg/day in 3 divided doses); Extended-release—0.375 mg once daily; may be ↑ to 0.75 mg once daily in 5–7 days, and then ↑ q 5–7 days by 0.75 mg/day (max dose = 4.5 mg/day).

Renal Impairment

Oral (Adults Immediate-release) CCr 35–59 mL/min—0.125 mg twice daily initially, may be ↑ q 5–7 days up to 1.5 mg twice daily; CCr 15–34 mL/min—0.125 mg daily initially, may be ↑ q 5–7 days up to 1.5 mg daily.

Renal Impairment

Oral (Adults Extended-release) CCr 30–50 mL/min—0.375 mg every other day; may consider ↑ dose to 0.375 mg once daily after 1 wk based on response and tolerability; may ↑ in 0.375 mg increments after 1 wk (max dose = 2.25 mg/day).

Restless Leg Syndrome

Oral (Adults) 0.125 mg daily 1–3 hr before bedtime. May be ↑ at 4–7 day intervals to 0.25 mg daily, then up to 0.5 mg daily.

Renal Impairment

Oral (Adults Immediate-release) CCr 20–60 mL/min—0.125 mg daily 1–3 hr before bedtime. May be ↑ at 14-day intervals to 0.25 mg daily, then up to 0.5 mg daily.

Availability (generic available)

Immediate-release tablets: 0.125 mg, 0.25 mg, 0.5 mg, 0.75 mg, 1 mg, 1.5 mg Cost: Generic — 0.125 mg $265.47 / 90, 0.25 mg $277.55 / 90, 0.5 mg $265.47 / 90, 0.75 mg $265.47 / 90, 1 mg $277.55 / 90, 1.5 mg $277.55 / 90
Extended-release tablets: 0.375 mg, 0.75 mg, 1.5 mg, 2.25 mg, 3 mg, 3.75 mg, 4.5 mg Cost: 0.375 mg $103.92 / 7, 0.75 mg $103.92 / 7, 1.5 mg $103.92 / 7, 2.25 mg $445.40 / 30, 3 mg $445.40 / 30, 3.75 mg $445.40 / 30, 4.5 mg $445.40 / 30

Nursing implications

Nursing assessment

  • Assess patient for confusion or hallucinations. Notify health care professional if these occur.
  • Monitor ECG and BP frequently during dosage adjustment and periodically throughout therapy.
  • Assess patient for drowsiness and sleep attacks. Drowsiness is a common side effect of pramipexole, but sleep attacks or episodes of falling asleep during activities that require active participation may occur without warning. Assess patient for concomitant medications that have sedating effects or may increase serum pramipexole levels (see Interactions). May require discontinuation of therapy.
  • Parkinson's Disease: Assess patient for signs and symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (tremor, muscle weakness and rigidity, ataxia) before and throughout therapy.
  • Restless Leg Syndrome: Assess sleep patterns and frequency of restless leg disturbances.

Potential Nursing Diagnoses

Impaired physical mobility (Indications)
Risk for injury (Indications,  Side Effects)

Implementation

  • Do not confuse Mirapex (pramipexole) with Miralax (polyethylene glycol).
  • An attempt to reduce the dose of levodopa/carbidopa may be made cautiously during pramipexole therapy.
  • Oral: Administer with meals to minimize nausea; usually resolves with continued therapy. Swallow extended-release tablets whole; do not crush, break, or chew.

Patient/Family Teaching

  • Instruct patient to take medication as directed. Take missed doses or immediate-release product as soon as remembered if it is not almost time for next dose. If extended release tablets are missed, skip dose and take next regular dose. Do not double doses. Consult health care professional before reducing dose or discontinuing medication. Advise patient to read the Patient Information sheet before taking and with each Rx refill, changes may occur.
  • May cause drowsiness and unexpected episodes of falling asleep. Caution patient to avoid driving or other activities requiring alertness until response to medication is known. Advise patient to notify health care professional if episodes of falling asleep occur.
  • Advise patient to change position slowly to minimize orthostatic hypotension. May occur more frequently during initial therapy.
  • Instruct patient to notify health care professional of all Rx or OTC medications, vitamins, or herbal products being taken and consult health care professional before taking any new medications.
  • Advise patient to have periodic skin exams to check for lesions that may be melanoma.
  • Advise patient to notify health care professional if new or increased gambling, sexual, or other intense urges occur.
  • Advise female patient to notify health care professional if pregnancy is planned or suspected or if breast feeding or planning to breast feed.

Evaluation/Desired Outcomes

  • Decreased tremor and rigidity in Parkinson’s disease.
  • Decrease in restless legs and improved sleep.

Mirapex

(mîr′ə-pĕks′)
A trademark for the drug pramipexole.

Mirapex®

Pramipexole, see there.
References in periodicals archive ?
This last finding is "difficult to explain," since heart failure is a chronic condition, and the studies had limitations, which "make it difficult to determine whether excess heart failure was related to Mirapex use or other influencing factors," the FDA statement said.
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And the man, from Bangor, Co Down, is planning to sue the firm behind the medication Mirapex which he said has ruined his life.
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Doctors also sometimes prescribe Neurontin or Mirapex (developed for Parkinson's disease) to ease symptoms.
A daily dose of Mirapex (generic name: pramipexole) improved symptoms of restless legs syndrome (RLS) for a 24-hour period and produced significant improvements in patients' sleep, according to study results presented at a meeting of the Movement Disorder Society.
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The introduction of Mirapex and Requip has been largely responsible for driving the market over the recent period.
Canonsburg PA) persuaded a judge to invalidate a patent for the Parkinson's disease medicine Mirapex that is owned by a U.