Decreased left middle temporal gyrus volume in antipsychotic drug-naive, first-episode schizophrenia patients and their healthy unaffected siblings.
Compared to controls, unaffected siblings had reduced gray matter in the left middle temporal gyrus.
In order to access mesial temporal structures, there is a reduced chance of injury of the optical pathways through the middle temporal gyrus
and middle temporal sulcus, approaching them through an average distance of 23 millimeters from the temporal pole.
Also, they detected significant responses to words in other parts of the reading network, including the anterior middle temporal gyrus
, the left posterior middle temporal gyrus
, the angular and supramarginal gyri, and the left superior temporal gyrus.
Deficiencies of verbal working memory were associated with changes in the phonological loop;  decreased spatial working memory was related to dysfunctions in bilateral BA9/46, BA6 and BA7/40 brain regions;  and deficits in autobiographical memory tasks were associated with decreased activation in the left middle temporal gyrus (BA 21), putamen, right fusiform gyrus (BA 37) and cuneus (BA 18) and with over-activation in the right superior parietal lobule (BA 7).
Another study  investigating the association between angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion polymorphisms and cognitive functioning among patients with LOD found that, compared to the I-allele, the D-allele was associated with significantly smaller volumes of white matter in the superior frontal gyrus and anterior cingulated gyrus, and with significantly larger volumes in the middle temporal gyrus and middle occipital gyrus.
When compared with MCI brains, EAD brains showed an expansion of the tangles, with significantly more in the middle temporal gyrus
, middle temporal gyrus
, amygdala, and subiculum.
When imagining sentences spoken in another person's voice, the normal subjects and the nonhallucinating schizophrenics had strong activation in the left middle temporal gyrus
and the rostral supplementary motor region.