Among the toxins produced by cyanobacteria, the microcystins have been the most commonly found in blooms around the world, and they are produced by several cyanobacterial genera such as Microcystis
, Anabaena, Nodularia, Oscillatoria, Nostoc, Cylindrospermopsis, Aphanizomenon, Planktothrix, Anabaenopsis, Synechocystis, Lyngbya, and others (Siqueira & Oliveira-Filho, 2005; Bortoli & Pinto, 2015).
Nutrient enrichment and selective predation by zooplankton promote Microcystis
(Cyanobacteria) bloom formation.
6 Oscillatoria subbrevis Anabaena fertilissima Nostoc carneum Microcystis
elegans Sprirulina major Diatoms 113 27.
Furthermore, it was observed that the SNPs biosynthesized by these species had potent cytotoxic activity against Microcystis
CD4 cell levels continue to fall (<200 cells / ML) to levels that can increase the risk of opportunistic infections by bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites such as Microcystis
Carinii, cytomegalovirus and enteropathic parasites, which could be threatening life diseases .
blooms have become a regular summertime event on Lake Erie; this 2011 bloom was particularly bad.
Isolation, identification and characterization of phytoplankton-lytic bacterium CH-22 against Microcystis
In the summer of 2014, news spread like wildfire through the city of Toledo, Ohio that quality tests indicated that large amounts of an algae known as microcystis
were found in the water of Lake Erie (Henry, 2014a).
2006) reported that the toxicity of Microcystis
aeruginosa incremented to 90% when the cyanophyte was stressed as the salinity increased.
16) Ultrasonography helped in classifying the lesion (macrocystic, microcystis
, or mixed), location, relation to surrounding structures, and extent of the lesion.
First reported case of turtle deaths during a toxic Microcystis
Among the detected cyanobacteria species, three of the taxa have been reported to be toxin producers: Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, Microcystis