The fourth objective was to check for any significant differences in the use of metacognitive strategies
between pupils of early childhood education with high and low academic performance (see Figure 3).
Ensenanza-aprendizaje de estrategias metacognitivas en ninos de Educacion Infantil [The teaching-learning of metacognitive strategies
in preschool children.
Notwithstanding the importance of cognitive and metacognitive strategies
as tools for enhancing reading comprehension, there is no reason to assume that all elementary students spontaneously discover them and appeal to strategic processes when confronting texts that are challenging to comprehend (Aarnoutse & Verhoeven, 2003; Hartman, 2001; Pressley & Allington, 1999).
Learners must engage in reflective thinking and metacognitive strategies
during inquiry and develop coherent explanations for information presented to them in constructive learning environments.
Within the category of metacognitive strategies
, participants reported using goal setting (9 references), strategic planning (9 references), self-monitoring (30 references) and self-evaluation (8 references).
Baker and Brown determined that proficient readers employ a number of metacognitive strategies
during reading that assist them to understand a text.
This did not mean, however, that children lacked metacognitive strategies
, or awareness.
Specifically, students' self-reported task value and efficacy beliefs were significant positive predictors of their reported use of elaboration, critical thinking, and metacognitive strategies
Results evidenced the use of a great variety of cognitive, support and metacognitive strategies
although, over time, some of them became less frequent or even disappeared.
The results of numerous studies have shown that instruction in metacoguitive processes can promote learning and problem solving among students and improve existing metacognitive strategies
and models (Davidson & Sternberg, 1998; Desoete, Roeyers, & De Clercq, 2003; Dhieb-Henia, 2003; Hartman, 2001; Hollingworth & McLoughlin, 2001; McWhaw & Abrami, 2001; Sheorey & Mokhtari, 2001; Teong, 2003; W.
The use of metacognitive strategies
builds a bridge between all steps in the model.
Use of metacognitive strategies
may be linked to efficient ways to improve performance in academic and work environments.