mental disorder

(redirected from Mental disability)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus.

mental

 [men´tal]
1. pertaining to the mind.
2. pertaining to the chin.
mental disorder any clinically significant behavioral or psychological syndrome characterized by distressing symptoms, significant impairment of functioning, or significantly increased risk of death, pain, or other disability. Mental disorders are assumed to result from some behavioral, psychological, or biological dysfunction in the individual. The concept does not include deviant behavior, disturbances that are essentially conflicts between the individual and society, or expected and culturally sanctioned responses to particular events.
mental retardation less than average general intellectual functioning that brings with it some degree of impaired adaptation in learning, social adjustment, or maturation, or in all three areas; it is now classified as a developmental disability.

Mental retardation is a relative term. Its meaning depends on what society demands of the individual in learning, skills, and social responsibility. Many people who are considered developmentally challenged in the complex modern world would get along normally in a simpler society.

Diagnosis: There is no absolute measurement for retardation. At one time the different types were classified only according to the apparent severity of the retardation. Since the most practical standard was intelligence, the degree of retardation was based on the score of the patient on intelligence tests such as the intelligence quotient (IQ). The average person is considered to have an IQ of between 90 and 110, and those who score below 70 are considered mentally retarded.

In the past, the different groupings were classified in terms such as feebleminded, idiot, imbecile, and moron. Today, most health care providers use the following classifications: for IQ's from 50 to 70, mild; 35 to 50, moderate; 20 to 35, severe; under 20, profound. Whatever classifications are used, it is agreed that IQ measurements are only one part of the factors to be considered in determining mental retardation. Others, such as the patient's adaptability to surroundings, the services and training available, and the amount of control shown over his or her emotions, are also very important.

About 85 per cent of patients considered mentally retarded are in the least severe, or mild, group. Those in this group do not usually have obvious physical defects and thus are not always easy to identify as mentally retarded while they are still infants. Sometimes such a child's mental defects do not show up until the time of entering school, when the child has difficulty learning and keeping up with others in the same age group. Many persons who are in the mild category, as adults can find employment or a place in society suitable to their abilities, so that they are no longer identified as mentally retarded.

Cause: The cause of mental retardation is often unidentifiable; known ones are classified as either genetic or acquired. Genetic conditions include chromosomal abnormalities such as down syndrome and klinefelter's syndrome and errors of metabolism such as phenylketonuria, hypothyroidism, and tay-sachs disease. Acquired conditions may be prenatal, perinatal, or postnatal. Prenatal conditions include rubella and other viral infections, toxins, placental insufficiency, and blood type incompatibility. Perinatal causes are anoxia, birth injury, and prematurity. Postnatal causes may include infections, poisons, poor nutrition, trauma, and sociocultural factors such as deprivation.

Many conditions that can cause severe retardation can be diagnosed during pregnancy, and in some cases proper treatment can lessen or even prevent retardation. Proper care for the mother during pregnancy and for the baby in the first months of life is also important.

men·tal dis·or·der

a psychological syndrome or behavioral pattern that is associated with subjective distress and/or objective impairment.
See also: mental illness, behavior disorder.

mental disorder

n.
Any of various disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or autism spectrum disorder, characterized by a distressing or disabling impairment of an individual's cognitive, emotional, or social functioning.

mental disorder

any disturbance of emotional equilibrium, as manifested in maladaptive behavior and impaired functioning, caused by genetic, physical, chemical, biological, psychological, or social and cultural factors. Also called emotional illness, mental illness, psychiatric disorder.

mental disorder

A clinically significant behavioural or psychological syndrome or pattern that occurs in an individual and is associated with present distress (e.g., a painful symptom) or disability (i.e., impairment in one or more important areas of functioning), or with significantly increased risk of suffering death, pain, disability or an important loss of freedom. This syndrome or pattern must not be merely an expectable and culturally sanctioned response to a particular event (for example, the death of a loved one).

mental disorder

Mental illness Psychology '…a clinically significant behavioral or psychological syndrome or pattern that occurs in an individual.associated with present distress–eg, a painful Sx or disability–ie, impairment in one or more important areas of functioning or with significantly increased risk of suffering death, pain, disability, or an important loss of freedom…this syndrome or pattern must not be merely an expectable and culturally sanctioned response to a particular event, for example, the death of a loved one'

men·tal dis·or·der

(men'tăl dis-ōr'dĕr)
A psychological syndrome or behavioral pattern associated with either subjective distress or objective impairment.
See also: mental illness, behavior disorder

men·tal dis·or·der

(men'tăl dis-ōr'dĕr)
Psychological syndrome or behavioral pattern associated with subjective distress and/or objective impairment.

mental disorder,

n any disturbance of emotional equilibrium as manifested in maladaptive behavior and impaired functioning, caused by genetic, physical, chemical, biologic, psychologic, or social and cultural factors. Also called
emotional illness, mental illness, psychiatric disorder.

Patient discussion about mental disorder

Q. Regarding mental illness My mom is suffering from mental illness. As she remains absent minded through out the day, moreover remains silent (talkless), suffering with idiot ideas. Pls advise me how may i resolve this prob. She is sufferring from last 4 years....!!! and now it has increased. We are also under supervision of phycologist but he used to kept her on sleep as alternative. I need yr some corrective suggestion & help. Regards Parth

A. Parth- Dan could be right, there might be another diagnosis for your mother. it sounds like late stages of Parkinson's, but that would be hard to miss due to a very clear first stages.. if Schizophrenia was diagnosed properly - you should know that there are cases of recovery but it's about 15%. so it's not much, but a dual treatment can improve her state. is she taking any medication?

Q. Everyone on my mother's side has mental illness and addictions. How do you convince someone they need help? It seems to be an inherited bi-polar disorder. An uncle shot his wife. A brother shot his wife and killed himself. My son has been diagnosed as bi-polar. How do I convince or get help for other family members who are in denial?

A. Thank you so much for your answer; unfortunately the link didn't work. I'll try to get there though. I've been researching and I think it's going to be bi-polar spectrum disorder. Are there any forums exclusively for that?

Q. How do you know the difference if the child has ADHD or have other mental disorders? The child has been of ADHD medication for four years give or take a few months. The problems are getting gradually worse. She has no patience with anything, can’t sit still. She is ten years old but she acts like she is 6.

A. Sometimes, seasonal allergies can intensify behavior. I have a child with adhd who changes dramatically around fall and spring and it takes a couple of months for her to return to a lower level of adhd-ness. I recently took her to an allergist and found out she's allergic to weeds (fall) and a number of trees (spring).

More discussions about mental disorder
References in periodicals archive ?
118) The pressures of cross-examination may result in apparently conflicting testimony by a complainant with a mental disability.
The court emphasized that such limitations precede the occurrence of the disability and thus there is no discrimination against an employee with a mental disability because such employees were eligible for the same long-term disability coverage at the same premium as all other employees participating in the employer's group plan.
Simply because a person has a mental disability, or is subject to confinement, does not mean that he or she is incapable of exercising the rights of citizenship, including access to the courts and privacy.
Responses on the parent survey indicated that teenagers with mental disability also receive less at-home instruction than do teenagers with average intelligence.
A culture that places a premium on educational achievement and self-sufficiency, after all, also devalues mental disability.
Finally, in order to claim ADA protection for unlawful termination based on a mental disability, a person must be able to prove that he or she is capable of performing the tasks required for the job, and that he or she also can work without causing danger or disruption to others.
NATIONAL 4-H COUNCIL "National 4-H Council is committed to a policy that all persons shall have equal access to its programs, facilities, and employment without regard to race, color, sex, religion, religious creed, ancestry or national origin, age, veteran status, sexual orientation, marital status, disability, physical or mental disability.
Stress, irritability, chronic lateness, and poor judgment aren't mental impairments, but they may be linked to mental disability if they limit a major life activity - particularly over a long period of time.
The third definition covers persons who erroneously are regarded as having a mental disability.
While allowing, for example, that "determining accommodations for mental disabilities [is] an area that remains unclear even for most mental health professionals," Fielder blithely asserts in the same paragraph that, "regardless of the mental disability, it should be neither costly nor difficult to offer reasonable accommodations for most qualified employees.
And both Perske and Lustig believe that police, attorneys, and judges need to be educated about mental disability.
A professional with a mental disability is legally no different than a blue-collar worker with a serious back injury," declares ADA drafter Christopher Bell.