intelligence quotient

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intelligence

 [in-tel´ĭ-jens]
the ability to comprehend or understand. It is basically a combination of reasoning, memory, imagination, and judgment; each of these faculties relies upon the others. Intelligence is not an entity within a person but a combination of cognitive skills and knowledge made evident by behaviors that are adaptive.

In speaking of general intelligence, authorities often distinguish between a number of different kinds of basic mental ability. One of these is verbal aptitude, the ability to understand the meaning of words and to use them effectively in writing or speaking. Another is skill with numbers, the ability to add, subtract, multiply, and divide and to use these skills in problems. The capacity to work with spatial relationships, that is, with visualizing how objects take up space, is still another (for example, how two triangles can fit together to make a square). Perception, memory, and reasoning may also be considered different basic abilities.

These abilities are the ones that are usually examined by intelligence tests. There are others, however, that may be as important or more important. Determination and perseverance make intelligence effective and useful. Artistic talent, such as proficiency in art or music, and creativity, the ability to use thought and imagination to produce original ideas, are difficult to measure but are certainly part of intelligence.
intelligence quotient (I.Q.) a numerical expression of intellectual capacity obtained by multiplying the mental age of the subject, ascertained by testing, by 100 and dividing by his or her chronologic age.
intelligence test a set of problems or tasks posed to assess an individual's innate ability to judge, comprehend, and reason.

quotient

 [kwo´shent]
a number obtained by division.
achievement quotient the achievement age divided by the mental age, indicating progress in learning.
caloric quotient the heat evolved (in calories) divided by the oxygen consumed (in milligrams) in a metabolic process.
intelligence quotient IQ; a numerical expression of intellectual capacity obtained by multiplying the mental age of the subject, ascertained by testing, by 100 and dividing by the chronological age.
respiratory quotient RQ; the ratio of the volume of carbon dioxide given off by the body tissues to the volume of oxygen absorbed by them; usually equal to the corresponding volumes given off and taken up by the lungs. It varies with the fuel source used: for carbohydrates it is 1.0; for lipids 0.7; for proteins 0.8; and with overfeeding (lipogenesis) 1.0–1.3.

in·tel·li·gence quo·tient (IQ),

the psychologist's index of measured intelligence as one part of a two-part determination of intelligence, the other part being an index of adaptive behavior that includes such criteria as school grades or work performance. IQ is a score, or similar quantitative index, used to denote a person's standing relative to age peers on a test of general ability, ordinarily expressed as a ratio between the person's score on a given test and the score that an average person of comparable age attained on the same test, the ratio being computed by the psychologist or determined from a table of age norms, such as the various Wechsler intelligence scales.

intelligence quotient

n. Abbr. IQ
1. A number seen as a measure of a person's intelligence, usually representing the person's score on an intelligence test as expressed in relation to the scores of others who have taken the same test, with the average score set at 100.
2. The ratio of tested mental age to chronological age, usually expressed as a quotient multiplied by 100. No longer in scientific use.

intelligence quotient (IQ)

a numeric expression of a person's intellectual level as measured against the statistical average of his or her age group. On several of the traditional scales, it is determined by dividing the mental age, derived through psychological testing, by the chronological age and multiplying the result by 100. Average IQ is considered to be 100. Compare achievement quotient. See also accomplishment quotient.

intelligence quotient

 A ratio that compares a person's cognitive skills with that of the general population, usually calculated as the mental age divided by the chronologic age, multipled by 100
Intelligence Quotient Tests
Preschool Bayley Scale of Infant development, Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities, Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children
School age Wechsler scales, Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children
Adult Wechsler scales, Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale
Adult  20-35  Severe mental retardation
  36-51 Moderate mental retardation
  52-67 Mild mental retardation
  68-83 Borderline mental retardation
  90-110 Average
  >140 Gifted–'genius' 

in·tel·li·gence quo·tient

(IQ) (in-tel'i-jĕns kwō'shĕnt)
The psychologist's index of intelligence as one part of a two-part determination, the other part being an index of adaptive behavior. IQ is ordinarily expressed as a ratio between the person's score on a given test and the score that the average individual of comparable age attained on the same test.

intelligence quotient (IQ)

A figure obtained by dividing the mental age, as assessed by various tests such as the Stanford-Binet test, by the chronological age, and multiplying the result by 100. Versions of the Stanford-Binet test include sections for every age level, from 2 to 20. These tests involve such activities as making copies of simple pictures, putting shapes in appropriate holes, stringing beads, answering questions, identifying absurdities in pictures, selecting words that have something in common, pairing off abstract shapes, predicting future terms in an arithmetical or graphical series, and so on. The IQ increases with age up to about 18 and then remains fairly static during most of adult life. People of IQ over 130 are exceptionally intelligent, and people below 70 are retarded in their ability to learn.

in·tel·li·gence quo·tient

(IQ) (in-tel'i-jĕns kwō'shĕnt)
Psychologist's index of measured intelligence as one part of a two-part determination of intelligence, the other part being an index of adaptive behavior that includes such criteria as school grades or work performance.
References in periodicals archive ?
Results indicated no significant effect for race on the perception of the cognitive ability test as a measure of intelligence [F(1, 244) = 2.
Results indicated no significant effect for perceptions of the cognitive ability test as a measure of intelligence on the score on the cognitive ability test [F(1, 244) = 2.
We accomplished this by examining the role of race as it pertains to 1) participants' perceptions of a cognitive ability test as a measure of intelligence and as a measure of job knowledge and 2) participants' perceptions of intelligence and knowledge as fixed characteristics.
2007) used in their study is a high quality measure of intelligence, and only the ITBS measures its intended construct (academic achievement) well.
Deaf and hearing-impaired students have also been sampled in order to provide evidence that the UNIT is a valid measure of intelligence.
The UNIT is a measure of intelligence assessed nonverbally, and the Standard battery includes two subtests measuring memory.
Developed over six decades ago, the Shipley Institute of Living Scale (Shipley, 1967; Zachary, 1991) is a brief measure of intelligence consisting of two subtests.
While the Shipley enjoys status as a well-established brief measure of intelligence, the test was not developed from a theoretically based model of intelligence.
Several studies have provided evidence of the Shipley's validity as a brief measure of intelligence.
They also indicate that this new task, which bears some formal similarity to conventional VIT tasks, in that both demand a left-right spatial judgment of target location, is significantly related to a measure of intelligence (r = -0.
The fact that, under these circumstances, two measures of IT in different sensory modalities are significantly related to a measure of intelligence lends support to the view that some fundamental time limited aspect of processing underlies the relationships.
Further research may wish to validate IT as a measure of intelligence, using the same procedure that has been used with IQ: correlating performance with measures thought to represent intelligence (e.