A high public or government official of the Chinese empire; the term has been used in reference to the power wielded by a mandarin-like class of professionals—physicians, lawyers, scientists, engineers, middle managers, etc.
As much as Said extols the old-school erudition and learning that characterized the Jewish mandarinate, it is really the quality of their excludedness and not their exclusivity that Said puts most to the fore.
In the fifteenth century, these lineages had each produced a mandarinate graduate who had reorganized bronze manufacturing in joint effort by forming guilds, each of which specialized in producing certain items.
This last principle sounds simple and common-sensical when stated baldly, but it is actually the most radical of the four, because if carried out it would deeply subvert the structure of the mandarinate.
This is not without value, but one is not easily convinced that Spender's particular experience is congruent with, much less able to stand for or in opposition to, a mandarinate fearful of losing its self as it loses cultural hegemony, or a critical prose able to let its grammar become captive to thwarted attentions.
In addition, the university had already become politicized through the subordination of knowledge to politico-utilitarian ends, such as the training of civil servants and state bureaucrats--among whose number were counted the very academic mandarinate that presided over the German university itself.
Shouldn't the Islamabad mandarinate and its political leadership instead learn a lesson or two from the spins that the detractors of this country give to whatever they put out maliciously to denigrate and demonise Pakistan?
As late as the 18th century, many leading European philosophers such as Voltaire often looked to Chinese society as an intellectual exemplar, while both the British and the Prussians used the Chinese mandarinate as their model for establishing a meritocratic civil service based on competitive examinations.