A high public or government official of the Chinese empire; the term has been used in reference to the power wielded by a mandarin-like class of professionals—physicians, lawyers, scientists, engineers, middle managers, etc.
Critique: An excellent, user-friendly resource for refining one's command of Mandarin Chinese, "Integrated Chinese: 4th Edition" teaches both simplified and traditional versions of Chinese characters and comes with a textbook, workbook, character workbook, and teacher's resources.
In the first section, Structures, Ross and Ma present a concise grammar of Mandarin Chinese organized in the familiar and traditional way, providing an overview of the Chinese writing system and describing the major features of Mandarin grammar.
Kung Fu Kingdom[R], the games part of the e-portal, tests not only the pupils' speaking, listening and reading ability but also their written Mandarin Chinese because the recognition and knowledge of Chinese characters is an important part of studying the language.
Specialists from around the world discuss issues specific to learning and teaching Mandarin Chinese around the world, discussing topics ranging from learner diversity and different goals to the future of Chinese as a global language.