Mallory-Weiss tear


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Mal·lo·ry-Weiss syn·drome

(mal'ŏ-rē wīs),
upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage resulting from a laceration in the mucosa at the gastroesophageal junction, usually induced by retching or vomiting.

Mallory-Weiss syndrome

Upper GI bleeding linked to longitudinal mucosal lacerations at the oesophagogastric junction or gastric cardia, which accounts for 5–15% of upper GI bleeds. While the original report by Mallory and Weiss in 1929 involved alcoholics with persistent retching and vomiting, the syndrome may follow any event that provokes a sudden rise in intragastric pressure or gastric prolapse into the oesophagus.

Clinical findings
The classic presentation is vomiting, retching or violent coughing, usually (85%) accompanied by haematemesis.
 
Risk factors
Hiatal hernia (35–100% of patients); alcohol use is reported in 40–75%, aspirin in 30%.

Management
Bleeding stops spontaneously in 80–90% of patients; most require symptomatic relief; active management strategies include bipolar electrocoagulation by endoscopy, injection therapy, transcatheter embolisation, and intra-arterial vasopressin infusion.

Mallory-Weiss tear

Mallory-Weiss lesion Emergency medicine A laceration of the esophagogastric junction, which accounts for 5–15% of upper GI bleeding; the classic scenario is vomiting, retching, or violent coughing in an alcoholic Pt Management Bleeding stops spontaneously in 80–90% of Pts; most require symptomatic relief; active management strategies include bipolar electrocoagulation by endoscopy, injection therapy, transcatheter embolization, and intra-arterial vasopressin infusion. Cf Esophageal varices.

Mal·lo·ry-Weiss le·sion

(mal'ŏr-ē wīs lē'zhŭn)
Laceration of the gastric cardia, as seen in the Mallory-Weiss syndrome.
Synonym(s): Mallory-Weiss tear.

Mallory,

George Kenneth, U.S. pathologist, 1900–.
Mallory syndrome - gastroesophageal junction mucosal laceration.
Mallory-Weiss lesion - laceration of the gastric cardia, as seen in the Mallory-Weiss syndrome. Synonym(s): Mallory-Weiss tear
Mallory-Weiss syndrome - laceration of the lower end of the esophagus, associated with bleeding, caused usually by severe retching and vomiting.
Mallory-Weiss tear - Synonym(s): Mallory-Weiss lesion

Weiss,

Soma, U.S. physician, 1898-1942.
Charcot-Weiss-Baker syndrome - see under Charcot
Mallory-Weiss lesion - see under Mallory, George Kenneth
Mallory-Weiss syndrome - see under Mallory, George Kenneth
Mallory-Weiss tear - Synonym(s): Mallory-Weiss lesion
References in periodicals archive ?
In this study, Mallory-Weiss tear was more commonly associated with NSAIDs rather than alcohol.
We observed that Mallory-Weiss tear was commonly associated with NSAIDs instead of alcohol, and repeat endoscopy was more common in portal hypertension.
Regardless of the cause, complications are more serious than Mallory-Weiss tears or esophageal dissection and include mediastinitis, pneumonia, empyema and abscess formation.
Esophageal varices and Mallory-Weiss tears are the two most common disorders leading to bleeding of esophageal origin.
When rushed to the emergency department during the emetic phase, CVS patients can present with blood in the vomitus due to prolapse gastropathy or Mallory-Weiss tears resulting from forceful heaves, erosive esophagitis, and aspiration.