magnesium chloride


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magnesium

 (Mg) [mag-ne´ze-um]
a chemical element, atomic number 12, atomic weight 24.312. (See Appendix 6.) Its salts are essential in nutrition, being required for the activity of many enzymes, especially those concerned with oxidative phosphorylation. It is found in the intra- and extracellular fluids and is excreted in urine and feces. The normal serum level is approximately 2 mEq/L. Magnesium deficiency causes irritability of the nervous system with tetany, vasodilation, convulsions, tremors, depression, and psychotic behavior.
Homeostasis of magnesium in extracellular fluids. The normal serum magnesium level is regulated by intestinal and renal function. Most of the body's magnesium is stored in bones, muscle, and soft tissue. From Malarkey and McMorrow, 2000.
magnesium carbonate an antacid.
magnesium chloride an electrolyte replenisher and a pharmaceutic necessity for hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis fluids.
magnesium citrate a saline laxative used for bowel evacuation before diagnostic procedures or surgery of the colon; administered orally.
magnesium hydroxide an antacid and cathartic.
magnesium oxide an antacid and a sorbent in pharmaceutical preparations; called also magnesia.
magnesium salicylate see salicylate.
magnesium silicate MgSiO3, a silicate salt of magnesium; the most common hydrated forms found in nature are asbestos and talc.
magnesium sulfate Epsom salt; an anticonvulsant and electrolyte replenisher, also used as a laxative and local antiinflammatory.
magnesium trisilicate a combination of magnesium oxide and silicon dioxide with varying proportions of water; used as a gastric antacid.

magnesium chloride


magnesium citrate

Citramag (UK), Citro-Mag (CA), Citroma

magnesium gluconate

Mag G, Magonate

magnesium hydroxide

Dulcolax Milk of Magnesia, Phillips Milk of Magnesia, Phillips Milk of Magnesia Concentrate

magnesium oxide

Mag-ox, Uro-Mag

magnesium sulfate

Epsom Salts

Pharmacologic class: Mineral

Therapeutic class: Electrolyte replacement, laxative, antacid, anticonvulsant

Pregnancy risk category A (magnesium sulfate), NR (magnesium citrate, hydroxide, oxide), unknown (magnesium chloride, gluconate)

Action

Increases osmotic gradient in small intestine, which draws water into intestines and causes distention. These effects stimulate peristalsis and bowel evacuation. In antacid action, reacts with hydrochloric acid in stomach to form water and increase gastric pH. In anticonvulsant action, depresses CNS and blocks transmission of peripheral neuromuscular impulses.

Availability

magnesium chloride

Injection: 20%

magnesium citrate

Oral solution: 240-ml, 296-ml, and 300-ml bottles

magnesium gluconate

Liquid: 1,000 mg/5 ml

Tablets: 500 mg

magnesium hydroxide

Liquid: 400 mg/5 ml

Liquid concentrate: 800 mg/5 ml

Tablets (chewable): 300 mg

magnesium oxide

Capsules: 140 mg

Tablets: 250 mg, 400 mg, 420 mg, 500 mg

magnesium sulfate

Granules (for oral use): 120 g, 4 lb

Injection: 10%, 12.5%, 25%, 50%

Indications and dosages

Mild magnesium deficiency

Adults: 1 g (2 ml of 50% sulfate solution) I.M. q 6 hours for four doses

Severe hypomagnesemia

Adults: 250 mg (2 mEq)/kg (sulfate) I.M. within 4-hour period, or 5 g (approximately 40 mEq) in 1 liter 5% dextrose injection or 0.9% sodium chloride solution by I.V. infusion over 3 hours

Hypomagnesemia treatment

Adults and children: Dosage individualized based on severity of deficiency; may give citrate, gluconate, hydroxide, oxide, or sulfate.

Hypomagnesemia prophylaxis

Adults and children: Dosage based on normal recommended daily magnesium intake; may give citrate, gluconate, hydroxide, oxide, or sulfate.

Supplemental magnesium in total parenteral nutrition (TPN)

Adults: 8 to 24 mEq/day (sulfate) by I.V. infusion, added to TPN solution

Constipation

Adults and children ages 12 and older: 15 g (sulfate granules) in 240 ml water; or 30 to 60 ml/day P.O. (hydroxide) given with water; or a single dose of 10 to 30 ml P.O. (hydroxide concentrate); or one bottle of oral solution (citrate), as directed

Children ages 6 to 11: 5 to 10 g (sulfate granules) in 120 ml water; or a single dose of 2.5 to 5 ml P.O. (sulfate) in a half-glass of water; or 15 to 30 ml P.O. daily (hydroxide) given with water; or a single dose of 7.5 to 15 ml P.O. (hydroxide concentrate); or three to four tablets (hydroxide); or 50 to 100 ml, as directed, of oral solution (citrate)

Children ages 2 to 5: Single dose of 5 to 15 ml P.O. (hydroxide); or 2.5 to 7.5 ml P.O. daily (hydroxide concentrate); or one to two tablets (hydroxide); or 4 to 12 ml oral solution (citrate), as directed

Indigestion

Adults and children ages 12 and older: 5 to 15 ml P.O. (hydroxide liquid) up to q.i.d. with water; or 2.5 to 7.5 ml P.O. (hydroxide liquid concentrate) up to q.i.d. with water; or 622 to 1,244 mg P.O. (hydroxide tablets) up to q.i.d.; or 400 to 800 mg P.O. (oxide tablets) daily

To prevent and control seizures in preeclampsia or eclampsia

Adults: 4 to 5 g 50% sulfate solution I.M. q 4 hours, as necessary; or 4 g 10% to 20% sulfate solution I.V., not to exceed 1.5 ml/minute of 10% solution; or 4 to 5 g I.V. infusion in 250 ml of 5% dextrose or sodium chloride solution, not to exceed 3 ml/minute

Acute nephritis to control hypertension, encephalopathy, and seizures in children

Children: 100 mg/kg 50% sulfate solution I.M. q 4 to 6 hours as needed; or 20 to 40 mg/kg 20% solution I.M., repeated as necessary

Off-label uses

• Bronchodilation in some asthmatic patients

• Post-myocardial infarction hypomagnesemia

Contraindications

• Hypermagnesemia

• Heart block

• Myocardial damage

• Active labor or within 2 hours of delivery

Precautions

Use cautiously in:

• renal insufficiency, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, rectal bleeding, anuria, hypocalcemia

• pregnant patients.

Administration

Be aware that magnesium sulfate injection is a high-alert drug.

• Know that I.V. use is reserved for life-threatening seizures.

• When giving magnesium sulfate I.V., don't exceed concentration of 20% or infusion rate of 150 mg/minute, except in seizures caused by severe eclampsia. Too-rapid I.V. infusion may cause hypotension and asystole.

• When giving magnesium sulfate I.M. to adults, use concentration of 25% to 50%; when giving to infants and children, don't exceed 20%.

Adverse reactions

CNS (with I.V. use): confusion, decreased reflexes, dizziness, syncope, sedation, hypothermia, paralysis

CV (with I.V. use): hypotension, arrhythmias, circulatory collapse

GI: nausea, vomiting, cramps, flatulence, anorexia

Metabolic: hypermagnesemia, hypocalcemia

Musculoskeletal (with I.V. use): muscle weakness, flaccidity

Respiratory: respiratory paralysis Skin: diaphoresis

Other: allergic reaction, injection site reaction, laxative dependence (with repeated or prolonged use)

Interactions

Drug-drug. Aminoquinolones, nitrofurantoin, penicillamine, tetracyclines: decreased absorption of these drugs (with oral magnesium)

CNS depressants: additive effects

Digoxin: heart block, conduction changes (with I.V. use)

Enteric-coated drugs: faster dissolution of these drugs

Neuromuscular blockers: increased effects of these drugs (with I.V. use)

Drug-diagnostic tests. Calcium, magnesium: increased levels (with I.V. use)

Patient monitoring

When giving prolonged or repeated I.V. infusions, assess patellar reflex and monitor for respiratory rate of 16 breaths/minute or more.

With I.V. use, monitor blood magnesium level (desired level is 3 to 6 mg/dl or 2.5 to 5 mEq/L). Check for signs and symptoms of magnesium toxicity (hypotension, nausea, vomiting, ECG changes, muscle weakness, mental or respiratory depression, coma). Keep injectable calcium on hand to counteract magnesium toxicity.

• Monitor urine output, which should measure 100 ml or more every 4 hours.

If I.V. magnesium was given before delivery, assess neonate for signs and symptoms of magnesium toxicity, such as neuromuscular or respiratory depression.

• Monitor electrolyte levels and liver function tests.

Patient teaching

Teach patient about adverse reactions. Instruct him to report symptoms that occur during I.V. administration.

• Advise patient to consult prescriber before using magnesium if he's taking other drugs. Magnesium may delay or enhance absorption of other drugs.

• Inform patient that repeated or prolonged use of magnesium citrate, hydroxide, or sulfate may cause laxative dependence. Inform him that healthy diet and exercise can reduce need for laxatives.

• Tell pregnant female to make sure prescriber knows she is pregnant before taking drug.

• As appropriate, review all other significant and life-threatening adverse reactions and interactions, especially those related to the drugs and tests mentioned above.

magnesium chloride

an electrolyte replenisher and a pharmaceutical necessity for hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis fluids.

magnesium

a chemical element, atomic number 12, atomic weight 24.312, symbol Mg. See Table 6. Its salts are essential in nutrition, being required for the activity of many enzymes, especially those concerned with oxidative phosphorylation. It is found in the intra- and extracellular fluids and is excreted in urine and feces.

magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP)
a common constituent of urinary calculi. See urolithiasis.
blood magnesium
level of magnesium in the blood.
magnesium carbonate, magnesium hydroxide, magnesium oxide, magnesium phosphate, magnesium trisilicate
compounds used as antacids.
magnesium chloride
used as a source of magnesium in the treatment of hypomagnesemia in cattle, and as a chemical defibrillator in cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
magnesium citrate
a mild cathartic.
magnesium gluconate
a magnesium replenisher.
magnesium nutritional deficiency
is most important in the part that it plays in lactation tetany in ruminants. It also causes deformities of the limbs and nervous signs of tremor and convulsions in pigs. See also lactation tetany (1).
magnesium salicylate
the magnesium salt of salicylic acid used as an antiarthritic.
magnesium silicate
talcum powder; capable of causing starch granulomatous peritonitis if introduced into the peritoneal cavity, so it has been superseded by other compounds for use on surgeon's gloves.
magnesium sulfate
Epsom salts; used as an electrolyte replenisher, cathartic and local anti-inflammatory.
magnesium sulfate-chloral hydrate mixture
see chloral hydrate and magnesium sulfate.
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Safe Step Power 5300 Max Blend contains a blend of magnesium chloride and calcium chloride to quickly melt ice on contact, down to minus 10 degrees Fahrenheit.
The resultant titanium has the form of a sponge (reaction) mass in which the pores are filled with magnesium chloride and unused magnesium.
We had materials stockpiled and we had people start coming in the Sunday before it hit to lay down the magnesium chloride and start working 24-hour shifts.
One company makes a de-icer called Magic-0, a mixture of beer by-products and magnesium chloride.
Magnesium chloride granules are melted in an electrolyte and treated by a chlorination process, which involves the injection of gaseous acid.
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Although there are dozens of deicing products currently on the market, nearly all of them contain one or more of the following chemicals: calcium chloride, sodium chloride (rock salt), magnesium chloride, potassium chloride, and urea.
TM] CI-2000 magnesium chloride ice control agent with an improved corrosion inhibitor is considered 70 percent less corrosive than salt, based on independent testing, says the company.
The Dow technology uses the electrolytic process for the production of magnesium from magnesium chloride.
States, counties and municipalities could save millions of dollars in concrete repair costs annually--and benefit from safer, more effectively cleared pavement surfaces--by switching to magnesium chloride as a winter de-icer, according to IMC Salt, a leading manufacturer of deicers.
Another is the reaction of magnesium chloride with sodium hydroxide.