macular hole


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macular hole

An ocular change caused by ageing, diabetes and degeneration resulting in shrinkage of the vitreous over the fovea, creating traction on the fovea and eventually a macular defect. In early stages, an epiretinal membrane compromises visual acuity, leading over time to metamorphopsia (lines on an Amsler grid appear wavy or crooked) and increasingly severe loss of vision.

Patients see anything from a fine, glistening membrane overlying the macula (cellophane maculopathy), to a thickened, whitish tissue that obscures underlying blood vessels. As it progresses, traction by the vitreous causes a puckering that appears as retinal folds radiating from the macula when viewed by fundoscopy.

macular hole

A tear or discontinuity in the central portion of the retina, resulting in central visual loss.

macular hole

A condition in which there is a partial or full thickness absence of the retina in the macular area. It may occur as a result of trauma, degeneration, old age, preretinal macular fibrosis or pathological myopia. It appears ophthalmoscopically as a round or oval, well defined, reddish spot at the macula. There is metamorphopsia, loss of visual acuity and a central scotoma. An operculum of retinal tissue may overlie the hole. The vitreous in front of the hole eventually condenses and separates from the retina. In partial macular hole a layer of photoreceptors may still be attached to the retinal pigment epithelium (lamellar hole), as in cystoid macular oedema. Treatment usually consists of reattaching the retina, if detached, and possibly vitrectomy. See preretinal macular fibrosis; confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope; retinal break; solar retinopathy; optical coherence tomography.
References in periodicals archive ?
Retinal Surgery Devices Market, by Applications Diabetic Retinopathy Retinal Detachment Epiretinal Membrane Macular Hole Others (Eye Infections and Eye Injuries) Retinal Surgery Devices Market, by Geography North America Europe Asia Pacific Rest of the World (RoW)Read the full report: http://www.
In adults, we know increasing pressure can cause a macular hole.
Vitreomacular Loss of, or abnormal, Refer to ophthalmology traction foveal reflex; OCT shows partial vitreous separation with residual attachment at, or adjacent to, fovea Full thickness Visible macular hole with Refer to ophthalmology macular hole cuff of sub-retinal fluid; OCT shows full thickness macular hole Dry macular Large subfoveal or Refer to ophthalmology degeneration juxtafoveal drusen, to rule out wet AMD drusenoid pigment when PED present epithelial detachments (PED) Central serous Clear dome shaped Refer to ophthalmology retinopathy elevation.
In the case of unilateral diseases, such as macular holes, questions about monocular vision are more intuitive to individuals who frequently check their own vision by closing the healthy eye; however, for bilateral conditions, such as retinitis pigmentosa, individuals have difficulty answering questions about monocular functioning.
In addition, injection of a gas into the interior of the eye to replace the vitreous gel that was removed aids in complete reattachment of the macula, since often it is detached just in the area of the macular hole.
Vitreomacular traction and macular hole is an age-related, sight-threatening condition that may lead to visual distortion and central blindness.
26) It is now accepted that the early event leading to macular hole formation is persistent vitreoretinal traction.
is approved for the treatment of vitreomacular traction (VMT), including when associated with macular hole of diameter less than or equal to 400 microns.
Alcon, the global leader in eye care and a division of Novartis, announces that the European Commission has approved Jetrea intravitreal injection (ocriplasmin) in the EU for the treatment of vitreomacular traction (VMT), including when associated with macular hole of diameter less than or equal to 400 microns.
NICE made the recommendation for a single treatment of the drug as a 'clinical and cost-effective treatment option' for patients with VMT, including VMT with macular hole of 400um or less.
Alcon, the global leader in eye care and a division of Novartis, announces the positive opinion from the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) for Jetrea(TM) (ocriplasmin), for the treatment of vitreomacular traction (VMT), including when associated with macular hole of diameter less than or equal to 400 microns.
Of 48 eyes receiving repeat surgery plus BetaKine, 83 percent (40 eyes) showed macular hole flattening (retinal repair), and 52 percent (25 eyes) showed vision improvement of three lines or better, as measured on a standard eye chart.