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14,16) These differences might be related to the distinct regulation of MKP-1 expression between in mouse and in chicken; While the expression levels of MKP-1 show circadian oscillation with the peak time at night in mouse liver and the SCN, they are constant throughout the day in the chick pineal grand.
MKP-1 interferes with the inflammatory cascade triggered by LPS, which includes a molecule known as p38, and results in higher levels of IL-6 and TNF-alpha.
Scientists found the MKP-1 gene after analysing brain tissue samples from 21 dead patients who were diagnosed with depression.
MKP-1 was found to be twice as active in the brains of those who were depressed, research in the journal Nature Medicine showed.
Professor Duman's team also found that when MKP-1 was deactivated in mice they became resilient to stress.
Scientists identified the gene, called MKP-1, after analysing brain tissue samples from 21 dead patients who were diagnosed with depression.
Vitamin D enhances glucocorticoid induction of MKP-1 and IL-10 in asthmatic PBMC in vitro," the researchers explained.
While Duman's team found several hundred differences, most striking were levels of mRNA for a particular protein, MKP-1, which inhibits a pathway involved in neural growth and development.
When the group over-expressed the gene for MKP-1 in the brains of healthy rats, the animals began to show signs of depression, which disappeared when treated with an antidepressant.
Duman's team found that one gene called MKP-1 was increased more than two-fold in the brain tissues of depressed individuals.
The finding that a negative regulator of a key neuronal signaling pathway is increased in depression also identifies MKP-1 as a potential target for a novel class of therapeutic agents, particularly for treatment resistant depression.
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