MAPK


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Related to MAPK: MEK, PI3K

MAPK

A broad category of serine-threonine kinases which regulate a broad range of cellular functions.

MAPK groups
• ERK—ERK1, ERK2.
• c-Jun N-terminal kinases
  – JNK1 = MAPK8;
  – JNK2 = MAPK9;
  – JNK3 = MAPK10.
• p38 isoforms—MAPK11, MAPK12, MAPK13, MAPK14.
• ERK5—MAPK7.
• ERK3, ERK4—MAPK6, MAPK4.
• ERK7/8—MAPK15.

ERK = Extracellular signal-regulated kinases.

ERK 1 and ERK 2 transduce signals from growth factors and are key in regulating differentiation and proliferation in many cell types. Upon activation by MEK, ERK1 and ERK2 translocate to the nucleus where they phosphorylate transcription factors such as Elk1 and downstream kinases—e.g., p90 RSK, JNK 1 = MAPK8; JNK2 = MAPK 9; and JNK3 = MAPK 10 (sometimes known as SAPKs, or stress-activated kinases) and the p38.

MAPKs (alpha-, beta-, delta- and gamma- isoforms) are activated by UV irradiation, inflammatory cytokines and hyperosmolarity. The p38 MAPKs are also activated by lipopolysaccharide. Dysregulation of MAPK kinase pathways has been associated with various diseases, including cancer (ERK), neurodegeneration (JNK) and inflammation (p38).

mitogen-activated protein kinase

,

MAPK

A signaling protein, i.e., a protein that circulates extracellularly influencing other cells to turn on the process of protein synthesis. These proteins have an effect on cellular replication and cellular death in inflammatory, ischemic, and malignant diseases.

protein kinase

An enzyme that activates or inactivates cell proteins or enzymes by adding a phosphate moiety, thereby changing cell functions.

mitogen-activated protein kinase

Abbreviation: MAPK
A signaling enzyme, i.e., one that circulates extracellularly, influencing cells to begin protein manufacturing. They affect cellular replication and death in inflammatory, ischemic, and malignant diseases.

mitogen-activated protein kinase

Abbreviation: MAPK
A signaling enzyme, i.e., one that circulates extracellularly, influencing cells to begin protein manufacturing. They affect cellular replication and death in inflammatory, ischemic, and malignant diseases.
See also: protein kinase
References in periodicals archive ?
Indirubin inhibits LPS-induced inflammation via TLR4 abrogation mediated by the NF-kB and MAPK signaling pathways.
The protective effect exhibited by FV was associated with the inhibition of MAPK signaling pathways and activation of Nrf2 pathway.
Depending on the specific cascade that is activated, integration of signaling through the MAPK pathway results in complex cellular outcomes such as cell proliferation, survival, differentiation, and migration.
Activation of p38 MAPK in CD4 T cells controls IL-17 production and autoimmune encephalomyelitis," Blood, vol.
TRPM7 mediates breast cancer cell migration and invasion through the MAPK pathway," Cancer Letters, vol.
p38 and JNK MAPK pathways are crucial for axon regeneration in C.
To examine the effect of rapamycin treatment on the maturation of aged oocytes at the molecular level, we investigated MAPK activity and maternal gene expression (Figure 3).
Digital images of the sections were obtained with a 20x objective (LeicaTM DM 4000 B, Germany) and analyzed for optical density of phospho-p44/42 and phospho-p38 MAPK labeling using semi-automatic software Image Processing and Analysis in Java (Image J, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA).
Considering that M1 mAChR activating MAPK was through PKC in PC12 cells [13,32], we fUrther examined the role of PKC in lesatropane induced ERK1/2 activation and finally peculated that lesatropane exerted the neuroprotective effects by activation of Mi mAChR via PKC-mediated phosphorylation of ERK1/2.
6-10) To date, seven distinct MAPK groups have been characterized in mammalian cells: extracellular regulated kinases (ERK1/2), c-Jun NH2 terminal kinases (JNK1/2/3), p38 MAPK (p38 [alpha]/[beta]/[gamma]/[delta]), ERK3/4, ERK5, ERK7/8, and Nemo-like kinase (NLK).
If you look at the outlined scheme of the MAPK pathway, then you can see the potential calculable risks and the consequences of such by alteration of a pathway that ultimately controls cell growth.