MAPK


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Related to MAPK: MEK, PI3K

MAPK

A broad category of serine-threonine kinases which regulate a broad range of cellular functions.

MAPK groups
• ERK—ERK1, ERK2.
• c-Jun N-terminal kinases
  – JNK1 = MAPK8;
  – JNK2 = MAPK9;
  – JNK3 = MAPK10.
• p38 isoforms—MAPK11, MAPK12, MAPK13, MAPK14.
• ERK5—MAPK7.
• ERK3, ERK4—MAPK6, MAPK4.
• ERK7/8—MAPK15.

ERK = Extracellular signal-regulated kinases.

ERK 1 and ERK 2 transduce signals from growth factors and are key in regulating differentiation and proliferation in many cell types. Upon activation by MEK, ERK1 and ERK2 translocate to the nucleus where they phosphorylate transcription factors such as Elk1 and downstream kinases—e.g., p90 RSK, JNK 1 = MAPK8; JNK2 = MAPK 9; and JNK3 = MAPK 10 (sometimes known as SAPKs, or stress-activated kinases) and the p38.

MAPKs (alpha-, beta-, delta- and gamma- isoforms) are activated by UV irradiation, inflammatory cytokines and hyperosmolarity. The p38 MAPKs are also activated by lipopolysaccharide. Dysregulation of MAPK kinase pathways has been associated with various diseases, including cancer (ERK), neurodegeneration (JNK) and inflammation (p38).

mitogen-activated protein kinase

,

MAPK

A signaling protein, i.e., a protein that circulates extracellularly influencing other cells to turn on the process of protein synthesis. These proteins have an effect on cellular replication and cellular death in inflammatory, ischemic, and malignant diseases.

protein kinase

An enzyme that activates or inactivates cell proteins or enzymes by adding a phosphate moiety, thereby changing cell functions.

mitogen-activated protein kinase

Abbreviation: MAPK
A signaling enzyme, i.e., one that circulates extracellularly, influencing cells to begin protein manufacturing. They affect cellular replication and death in inflammatory, ischemic, and malignant diseases.

mitogen-activated protein kinase

Abbreviation: MAPK
A signaling enzyme, i.e., one that circulates extracellularly, influencing cells to begin protein manufacturing. They affect cellular replication and death in inflammatory, ischemic, and malignant diseases.
See also: protein kinase
References in periodicals archive ?
The p38 MAPK signaling was then investigated for its contributions in TIIA's actions.
Rapamycin-treated aged oocytes showed microtubule rearrangement and an increased phospho-p44/42 MAPK level compared with untreated aged oocytes.
The cells were then treated with vehicle or different MAPK inhibitors for 1 hr, followed by addition of vehicle or 50 [micro]M o,p'-DDT for 18 hr.
To activate p38 MAPK by various stimuli, there is a requirement for dual phosphorylation on threonine and tyrosine residues present in specific motifs (threonine-glycine-tyrosine) located in the activation loop.
Proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE, blotted onto nitrocellulose membrane and probed with the antibodies dilution recognizing: Akt 1:1000, PAkt (Thr 308) 1:1000, FKHRL1 1:500, MAPKs p44/42 1:1000, P38 1:1500, JNK 1:2000 anti-[beta]-actin; all at 1:1000 dilution (cell signaling technology).
Calibration curves of phospho-p38 MAPK were prepared in duplicate according to manufacturer instructions.
Methods: We have transduced A549 cells to express hOgg1 using the retroviral vector pSF91 for studying the signaling transduction of MAPK.
ER[alpha], extra-cellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), phospho-ERKl/2, p38 MAPK, phospho-p38 MAPK, JNK, phospho-JNK, B[cl.
The TJ mRNA and protein expressions decreased significantly when U0126 was used to block the MAPK signaling pathway.
One cell-signaling pathway the team identified, known as p38 MAPK, appears to be a major player in making or breaking the skeletal muscle stem cell, or satellite cell, renewal process in adult mice, Olwin said.
The scientists focused their study on two molecules, MAPK and PKA, which earlier research has shown to be involved in many forms of memory and synaptic plasticity -- that is, changes in the brain that occur after neuronal interaction.
Endogenous ERa target genes and rapid signaling via the p44/42 MAPK pathway were activated by BPA, BPAF, and Zea.