monoamine oxidase inhibitor

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inhibitor

 [in-hib´ĭ-tor]
1. any substance that interferes with a chemical reaction, growth, or other biologic activity.
2. a chemical substance that inhibits or checks the action of a tissue organizer or the growth of microorganisms.
3. an effector that reduces the catalytic activity of an enzyme.
ACE i's (angiotensin-converting enzyme i's) see angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors.
angiogenesis inhibitor a group of drugs that prevent growth of new blood vessels into a solid tumor.
aromatase i's a class of drugs that inhibit aromatase activity and thus block production of estrogens; used to treat breast cancer and endometriosis.
C1 inhibitor (C1 INH) a member of the serpin group, an inhibitor of C1, the initial component activated in the classical complement pathway. Deficiency of or defect in the protein causes hereditary angioedema.
carbonic anhydrase inhibitor an agent that inhibits the enzyme carbonic anhydrase; used in treatment of glaucoma and sometimes for epilepsy, familial periodic paralysis, acute mountain sickness, and kidney stones of uric acid.
cholinesterase inhibitor anticholinesterase.
COX-2 i's (cyclooxygenase-2 i's) a group of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs that act by inhibiting cyclooxygenase-2 activity; they have fewer gastrointestinal side effects than other NSAIDs. Two members of the group are celecoxib and rofecoxib.
gastric acid pump inhibitor an agent that inhibits gastric acid secretion by blocking the action of H+,K+-ATPase at the secretory surface of gastric parietal cells; called also proton pump i.
HIV protease inhibitor any of a group of antiretroviral drugs active against the human immunodeficiency virus; they prevent protease-mediated cleavage of viral polyproteins, causing production of immature viral particles that are noninfective. Examples include indinavir sulfate, nelfinavir mesylate, ritonavir, and saquinavir.
HMG-CoA reductase i's a group of drugs that competitively inhibit the enzyme that catalyzes the rate-limiting step in cholesterol biosynthesis, and are used to lower plasma lipoprotein levels in the treatment of hyperlipoproteinemia. Called also statins.
membrane inhibitor of reactive lysis (MIRL) protectin.
monoamine oxidase inhibitor any of a group of drugs that inhibit the action of monoamine oxidase, the enzyme that breaks down norepinephrine and serotonin, prescribed for their antidepressant action; the most widely used ones are isocarboxazid, phenelzine, and tranylcypromine. They are also used in the prevention of migraine.
α2-plasmin inhibitor α2-antiplasmin.
plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI) any of several regulators of the fibrinolytic system that act by binding to and inhibiting free plasminogen activator. Their concentration in plasma is normally low, but is altered in some disturbances of bodily hemostasis. PAI-1 is an important fast-reacting inhibitor of t-plasminogen activator and u-plasminogen activator. Its synthesis, activity, and release are highly regulated; elevated levels of it have been described in a number of disease states. PAI-2 is a normally minor inhibitor that greatly increases in concentration during pregnancy and in certain disorders. PAI-3 is protein C inhibitor.
platelet inhibitor any of a group of agents that inhibit the clotting activity of platelets; the most common ones are aspirin and dipyridamole. See also antiplatelet therapy.
protease inhibitor
1. a substance that blocks activity of endopeptidase (protease), such as in a virus.
protein C inhibitor the primary inhibitor of activated anticoagulant protein C; it is a glycoprotein of the serpin family of proteinase inhibitors and also inhibits several other proteins involved in coagulation (thrombin, kallikrein, and coagulation factors X and XI) and urokinase. Called also plasminogen activator inhibitor 3.
proton pump inhibitor gastric acid pump i.
reverse transcriptase inhibitor a substance that blocks activity of the reverse transcriptase of a retrovirus and is used as an antiretroviral agent. Some are nucleosides or nucleoside analogues, and those that are not are therefore often called non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors.
selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) any of a group of drugs that inhibit the inactivation of serotonin by blocking its absorption in the central nervous system; used as antidepressants and in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder and panic disorder.
serine protease inhibitor (serine proteinase inhibitor) serpin.
topoisomerase i's a class of antineoplastic agents that interfere with the arrangement of DNA in cells.

monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI),

a class of chemical compounds that exerts an antidepressant effect by the reversible or irreversible inhibition of monoamine oxidase A.

monoamine oxidase inhibitor

n. Abbr. MAOI
Any of a class of antidepressant drugs that block the action of monoamine oxidase in the brain, thereby allowing the accumulation of monoamine neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine and serotonin.

monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI, MAO inhibitor)

any of a chemically heterogeneous group of drugs used primarily in the treatment of depression. These drugs also exert an antianxiety effect, especially anxiety associated with phobia. The effects of the drugs vary greatly from patient to patient, and their specific actions leading to clinical benefits are poorly understood. Among the most common adverse effects are drowsiness, dry mouth, orthostatic hypotension, and constipation. Overdosage may cause tremor, euphoria, or manic behavior. MAO inhibitors interact with many drugs and with foods containing large amounts of the amino acid tyramine. Ingestion of these foods by a person taking an MAO inhibitor is likely to cause a severe hypertensive episode associated with headache, palpitations, and nausea. Among these foods are cheeses, red wine, smoked or pickled herring, beer, and yogurt. Among the drugs that interact with MAO inhibitors are DOPamine, meperidine, and the indirect acting sympathomimetics, one of which, pseudoephedrine, is an ingredient in many common cold remedies. MAO inhibitors are also sometimes used in the treatment of migraine headache and hypertension. See also amine pump.

monoamine oxidase inhibitor

An inhibitor of monoamine oxidase, which inactivates monoamines.
 
Indications
Used to manage depression, anxiety and panic.

Synthetic MAOIs
Brofaromine, isocarboxazid, moclobemide, pargyline, phenelzine, selegeline, tranylcypromine.

Herbal MAOIs
Hypericum and yohimbe.

Caution foods
Cheese, wine and other foods with high concentrations of tyramine, an amino metabolised by monoamine oxidases. The excess tyramine triggers the release of the catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine, which can then produce hypertensive crisis and stroke. MAOIs should not be combined with SSRIs.

monoamine oxidase inhibitor

Pharmacology An inhibitor of monoamine oxidase, which inactivates monoamines Examples Brofaromine, isocarboxazid, moclobemide, pargyline, phenelzine, selegeline, tranylcypromine; herbal MAOIs–eg, hypericum, yohimbe Adverse interactions Cheeses and wines with high concentrations of tyramine–metabolized by monoamine oxidase, may trigger epinephrine and norepinephrine release, hypertensive crises, stroke; MAOIs should not be combined with SRIs

mon·o·a·mine ox·i·dase in·hib·it·or

(MAOI) (mon'ō-ă-mēn' ok'si-dās in-hib'i-tŏr)
Any of several antidepressants that inhibit enzymatic breakdown of monoamine neurotransmitters of the sympathetic/adrenergic system; not used as first-line therapy because of the risk of hypertensive crisis after consumption of foods or beverages containing pressor amines, including cheese, chocolate, beer, and wine.

Monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI)

An older class of antidepressants.

mon·o·a·mine ox·i·dase in·hib·it·or

(MAOI) (mon'ō-ă-mēn' ok'si-dās in-hib'i-tŏr)
An older antidepressant.
References in periodicals archive ?
CHI has identified warfarin, disulfiram, metronidazole and MAOI inhibitors as having a high potential for food/ drug interactions.