Ménière’s disease

Ménière’s disease

An idiopathic inner ear disorder which affects hearing and balance.

Clinical findings
Vertigo, profound hearing loss in one or more ears, tinnitus and a sensation of fullness in the ear.

Aetiology
Head trauma (acoustic and physical), viral labyrinthitis (mumps, measles, influenza, mastoiditis, otosclerosis, meningitis, diphtheria, syphilis), autoimmune disease, Cogan syndrome, dysautonomia, perilymph fistula, multiple sclerosis, acoustic neuroma, hypo- and hyperthyroidism, idiopathic.
 
Diagnosis
Clinical history is of paramount importance in the diagnosis of Ménière’s disease, as specific tests do not exist.

Management
Dehydrating agents (e.g., furosemide) improve the vestibular response of the affected ear and form the basis of the Lasix test; labyrinthectomy.