MS

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MS

 
Master of Science; Master of Surgery; mitral stenosis; multiple sclerosis.

MS

The JCAHO directs that magnesium sulfate or morphine sulfate be written in full to avoid ambiguity.

ms

Abbreviation for millisecond.

MS

Master of Science; Master of Surgery; mitral stenosis; multiple sclerosis.

ms

millisecond; one thousandth (10−3) of a second.

MS

abbr.
1. Latin Magister Scientiae (Master of Science)
2. magnetic south
3. Mississippi
4. multiple sclerosis

MS

abbreviation for multiple sclerosis.

MS/MS

abbreviation for tandem mass spectrometry.

MS

Abbreviation for:
Maffuci syndrome
magnesium sulphate
magnetic stirrer
maintenance and servicing
maladjustment score (Psychology)
malate synthase
malignant schwannoma
Manchester Scale (Medspeak-UK)
mandibular series
Manduca sexta
mannose-sensitive
manuscript
marbling score
Marfan syndrome
marital status
masochism and sadism
mass screening
mass spectra
mass spectrography
mass spectroscopy
mass storage
Master of Science
Master of Surgery (Medspeak-UK)
master switch
maternal separation
maternal serum
maternal separation
maxillary sinus
maximum stress
mean score
mean sensitivity
mean survival
mechanical stimulation
mechanical stress
Meckel syndrome
medial septum
median survival
medical services (Medspeak-UK)
mediastinal shift
mediastinoscopy
medical service
medical services (Medspeak-UK)
medical staff
medical student
medical supplies
medical survey
medicine and surgery
medical student
Menkes syndrome
menopausal syndrome
mental status
mental stress
mercaptosuccinate
mercaptosuccinic acid
metabolic syndrome
methenamine silver
methionine synthase (see there)
methyl salicylate
meticillin-sensitive
methysergide
metric system
microsatellite
microsomal
microsphere
mineralising surface
minimal support
minor stroke
minor surgery (Medspeak-UK)
missense
mitral sound
mitral stenosis (see there)
mobile surgery (Medspeak-UK)
modal sensation
mode switching
moderately susceptible
molar solution
molecular sieve
molecular substitution
Mongolian spot
mood stabiliser
morning sickness
morning stiffness
morphine sulphate
mucosubstance
multiple sclerosis (see there)
muscle shortening
muscle strength
musculoactive substance (see there)
musculoskeletal

MS

1. Mass spectroscopy.
2. Master of Science 3 Master of Surgery 4. Medical student 5. Mental status 6. Mitral stenosis, see there 7. Morphine sulfate
8. Multiple sclerosis, see there 9. Musculoskeletal.

MS

Abbreviation for mental status; mitral stenosis; multiple sclerosis.

sclerosis

(skle-ro'sis) [Gr. sklerosis, hardening]
A hardening or induration of an organ or tissue, esp. one due to excessive growth of fibrous tissue. See: arteriosclerosis; cerebrosclerosissclerotic (-rot'ik), adjective

amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

Abbreviation: ALS
Motor neuron disease.

annular sclerosis

Sclerosis in which a hardened substance forms a band about the spinal cord.

arterial sclerosis

Arteriosclerosis.

arteriolar sclerosis

Sclerosis of the arterioles.

diffuse sclerosis

Sclerosis affecting large areas of the brain and spinal cord.

hyperplastic sclerosis

Medial sclerosis.

insular sclerosis

multiple sclerosis.

intimal sclerosis

Atherosclerosis.

lateral sclerosis

Sclerosis of the lateral column of the spinal cord.
See: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

lobar sclerosis

Sclerosis of the cerebrum resulting in mental disturbances.

medial sclerosis

Sclerosis involving the tunica media of arteries, usually the result of involutional changes accompanying aging. Synonym: hyperplastic sclerosis

mesial temporal sclerosis

Abbreviation: MTS
Atrophy of neurons and scarring in the temporal lobe of the brain, typically in the hippocampus. It is both a cause and an effect of temporal lobe epilepsy. Some patients with focal seizures and a clearly defined area of MTS have significant improvement in seizure activity when the affected area of the temporal lobe is surgically removed.

multiple sclerosis

Abbreviation: MS
A chronic disease of the central nervous system (CNS) in which there is destruction of myelin within several regions of the brain and spinal cord at different times. This results in temporary, repetitive, or sustained disruptions in nerve impulse conduction, causing symptoms such as muscular weakness, loss of coordination, numbness, visual disturbances, loss of control of bowel, bladder, and sexual functions. The clinical picture in MS depends upon the extent of demyelination. Multiple sclerosis is a relatively common disorder: more than 400,000 Americans are affected, of whom the majority (about 390,000) are adults. Multiple sclerosis usually begins between ages 20 and 40; women are twice as likely to have the disease as men, and European-Americans are more likely to be affected than African-Americans or Asian-Americans. Four main categories of MS are currently recognized. The benign variant is marked by several episodes of nervous system dysfunction, followed by complete recovery. The primary progressive variant is marked by rapid loss of neurological functions that do not resolve, causing severe functional impairments that worsen over time. More common than either of these types of MS are the two relapsing-remitting variants. In patients with these disorders, neurological deficits develop and then improve either completely or partially. In patients who achieve only partial restoration of neurological function, secondary progression of the disease may result in a gradual accumulation of visual, motor, or sensory disabilities. Synonym: insular sclerosis

About half of all patients with MS become unable to work within 10 to 15 years of the first onset of symptoms. Within 25 years of the first symptoms, half of these patients cannot walk.

Etiology

The cause of the disease is unknown although much evidence suggests that T lymphocytes that injure nerve cells and nerve sheaths play an important role, that is, that the disease has an autoimmune basis. Some evidence links MS to hypovitaminosis of vitamin D.

Symptoms

Nearly a quarter of all patients with MS initially develop visual disturbances or blindness. Other consequences of the disease include sudden or progressive weakness in one or more limbs, muscular spasticity, nystagmus, fatigue, tremor, gait instability, recurrent urinary tract infections (caused by bladder dysfunction), incontinence, and alterations in mood, including euphoria, irritability, and depression. See: retrobulbar neuritis

Diagnosis

Diagnosis is usually based on the patient’s history. MRI may detect areas of the brain and/or spinal cord with demyelination. Lumbar puncture is often performed to assess patients for oligoclonal bands (immunoglobulins released into the cerebrospinal fluid due to inflammation).

Treatment

Although there is no known cure for MS, corticosteroids, interferon-alpha, and glatiramer may be used in specific settings to reduce disability or the frequency of relapses and the progression of disease in patients with some variants of MS. Treatment should be individualized because these therapies may be expensive, ineffective in benign or primary progressive disease, and poorly tolerated by some patients. Symptomatic relief (e.g., of spasticity with muscle relaxants, or of bladder dysfunction with anticholinergic drugs) is provided as needed.

Patient care

The health care professional provides support to patients with MS and their families. The patient is advised to avoid fatigue, overexertion, exposure to extreme heat or cold, and stressful situations, and is encouraged to follow a regular plan of daily activity and exercise based on levels of tolerance. The patient is taught about symptoms that may occur during exacerbations of the disease and the need to adapt the plan of care to changing needs, as well as about the administration of prescribed medications. Physical and occupational therapy referral assist the patient to maintain muscle tone and joint mobility, decrease spasticity, improve balance and coordination, and increase morale. Massages, relaxing baths, yoga, and tai chi may prove helpful. A nutritious, well-balanced diet with adequate roughage and fluids is recommended. Bladder and bowel training programs, self-catheterization, and the use of condom catheters may be required. Independence is encouraged by assisting the patient to develop new methods for activities of daily living (ADL) performance and optimal functioning. Both the patient and family are encouraged to promote safety in the home and the work environment. For support and information, the patient and family should be referred to the National Multiple Sclerosis Society (800-FIGHT-MS; www.nmss.org).

myelinoclastic diffuse sclerosis

Schilder's disease.

neural sclerosis

Sclerosis with chronic inflammation of a nerve trunk with branches.

nuclear sclerosis

An increase in the refractive index of the eye's crystalline lens, which culminates in the development of nuclear cataracts. Before the cataract fully opacifies, the patient's near vision may improve, a phenomenon known as senopia or second sight.

progressive systemic sclerosis

Abbreviation: PSS
A chronic disease of unknown cause that occurs four times as frequently in women as in men. It causes sclerosis of the skin and other organs, including the gastrointestinal tract, lungs, heart, and kidneys. The skin is taut, firm, and edematous and is firmly bound to subcutaneous tissue, which often causes limitation of the range of motion. The skin also feels tough and leathery, may itch, and later becomes hyperpigmented. The skin changes usually precede the development of signs of visceral involvement. See: CREST syndrome Synonym: systemic sclerosis

Treatment

There is no specific therapy. General supportive therapy is indicated. A great number of drugs including corticosteroids, vasodilators, d-penicillamine, and immunosuppressive agents have been tried. Physical therapy will help maintain range of motion and muscular strength but will not influence the course of joint disease.

renal sclerosis

Nephrosclerosis.

systemic sclerosis

Progressive systemic sclerosis.

tuberous sclerosis

Abbreviation: TS
An autosomal dominant disorder in which multiple benign tumors appear in the skin, brain, heart, and kidneys of affected children. Infants born with this disease may have facial angiofibromas, astrocytomas of the CNS, hamartomas of the retina, and other lesions, producing hydrocephalus, mental retardation, autism, and seizures.
Synonym: Bourneville disease; tuberous sclerosis complex

vascular sclerosis

Atherosclerosis.

venous sclerosis

Phlebosclerosis.

multiple sclerosis

Abbreviation: MS
A chronic disease of the central nervous system (CNS) in which there is destruction of myelin within several regions of the brain and spinal cord at different times. This results in temporary, repetitive, or sustained disruptions in nerve impulse conduction, causing symptoms such as muscular weakness, loss of coordination, numbness, visual disturbances, loss of control of bowel, bladder, and sexual functions. The clinical picture in MS depends upon the extent of demyelination. Multiple sclerosis is a relatively common disorder: more than 400,000 Americans are affected, of whom the majority (about 390,000) are adults. Multiple sclerosis usually begins between ages 20 and 40; women are twice as likely to have the disease as men, and European-Americans are more likely to be affected than African-Americans or Asian-Americans. Four main categories of MS are currently recognized. The benign variant is marked by several episodes of nervous system dysfunction, followed by complete recovery. The primary progressive variant is marked by rapid loss of neurological functions that do not resolve, causing severe functional impairments that worsen over time. More common than either of these types of MS are the two relapsing-remitting variants. In patients with these disorders, neurological deficits develop and then improve either completely or partially. In patients who achieve only partial restoration of neurological function, secondary progression of the disease may result in a gradual accumulation of visual, motor, or sensory disabilities. Synonym: insular sclerosis

About half of all patients with MS become unable to work within 10 to 15 years of the first onset of symptoms. Within 25 years of the first symptoms, half of these patients cannot walk.

Etiology

The cause of the disease is unknown although much evidence suggests that T lymphocytes that injure nerve cells and nerve sheaths play an important role, that is, that the disease has an autoimmune basis. Some evidence links MS to hypovitaminosis of vitamin D.

Symptoms

Nearly a quarter of all patients with MS initially develop visual disturbances or blindness. Other consequences of the disease include sudden or progressive weakness in one or more limbs, muscular spasticity, nystagmus, fatigue, tremor, gait instability, recurrent urinary tract infections (caused by bladder dysfunction), incontinence, and alterations in mood, including euphoria, irritability, and depression. See: retrobulbar neuritis

Diagnosis

Diagnosis is usually based on the patient’s history. MRI may detect areas of the brain and/or spinal cord with demyelination. Lumbar puncture is often performed to assess patients for oligoclonal bands (immunoglobulins released into the cerebrospinal fluid due to inflammation).

Treatment

Although there is no known cure for MS, corticosteroids, interferon-alpha, and glatiramer may be used in specific settings to reduce disability or the frequency of relapses and the progression of disease in patients with some variants of MS. Treatment should be individualized because these therapies may be expensive, ineffective in benign or primary progressive disease, and poorly tolerated by some patients. Symptomatic relief (e.g., of spasticity with muscle relaxants, or of bladder dysfunction with anticholinergic drugs) is provided as needed.

Patient care

The health care professional provides support to patients with MS and their families. The patient is advised to avoid fatigue, overexertion, exposure to extreme heat or cold, and stressful situations, and is encouraged to follow a regular plan of daily activity and exercise based on levels of tolerance. The patient is taught about symptoms that may occur during exacerbations of the disease and the need to adapt the plan of care to changing needs, as well as about the administration of prescribed medications. Physical and occupational therapy referral assist the patient to maintain muscle tone and joint mobility, decrease spasticity, improve balance and coordination, and increase morale. Massages, relaxing baths, yoga, and tai chi may prove helpful. A nutritious, well-balanced diet with adequate roughage and fluids is recommended. Bladder and bowel training programs, self-catheterization, and the use of condom catheters may be required. Independence is encouraged by assisting the patient to develop new methods for activities of daily living (ADL) performance and optimal functioning. Both the patient and family are encouraged to promote safety in the home and the work environment. For support and information, the patient and family should be referred to the National Multiple Sclerosis Society (800-FIGHT-MS; www.nmss.org).

See also: sclerosis

stenosis

(ste-no'sis) [Gr. stenosis, a narrowing]
The constriction or narrowing of a passage or orifice. stenosedstenotic (ste-nost', ste-nozd', ) (ste-not'ik), adjective

Etiology

Stenosis may result from embryonic maldevelopment, hypertrophy and thickening of a sphincter muscle, inflammatory disorders, or excessive development of fibrous tissue. It may involve almost any tube or duct.

aortic stenosis

Stenosis of blood flow from the left ventricle to the aorta due to aortic valve disease or obstructions just above or below the valve. The stenosis may be congenital or secondary to diseases of adolescence or adulthood, e.g., rheumatic fever or fibrocalcific degeneration of the valve. It is the most common cardiac valve dysfunction in the U.S. Synonym: aortostenosis

Symptoms

Many patients with mild or moderate aortic stenosis, e.g., with a valve area that is more than 1 cm2 or a valve gradient that is less than 50 mm Hg, have no symptoms and are unaware of their condition. A heart murmur is usually heard on physical examination of the patient. This murmur is best heard at the right second intercostal space during systole. Palpation of the arteries in severe aortic stenosis may reveal a delayed and weakened pulse, e.g., at the carotids. The heart's apical impulse may be laterally and inferiorly displaced as a result of left ventricular hypertrophy. Alarming symptoms include anginal chest pain, syncope, and dyspnea on exertion. When these occur, surgery to repair or replace the diseased valve are necessary.

Physical Findings

Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) diagnoses aortic stenosis and helps to evaluate its severity, determine left ventricular size and function, and detect other valvular disease.

Treatment

If the aortic valve area is significantly narrowed, i.e., < 0.8 cm2, or if the patient has experienced symptoms of heart failure or syncope, percutaneous balloon aortic valvuloplasty or aortic valve replacement may be necessary.

Patient care

A history of related cardiac disorders is obtained. Cardiopulmonary function is assessed regularly by monitoring vital signs and weight, intake, and output for signs of fluid overload. The patient is monitored for chest pain, which may indicate cardiac ischemia, and the electrocardiogram is evaluated for ischemic changes. Activity tolerance and fatigue are assessed.

After cardiac catheterization, the insertion site is checked according to protocol (often every 15 min for 6 hr) for signs of bleeding; the patient is assessed for chest pain, and vital signs, heart rhythm, and peripheral pulses distal to the insertion site are monitored. Problems are reported to the cardiologist.

Desired outcomes for all aortic valve surgeries include adequate cardiopulmonary tissue perfusion and cardiac output, reduced fatigue with exertion, absence of fluid volume excess, and ability to manage the treatment regimen. Patients with aortic stenosis (with or without surgical repair) require prophylactic antibiotics before invasive procedures (including dental extractions, cleanings) because of the risk they pose for bacteremia and infective endocarditis.

cicatricial stenosis

Stenosis due to a contracted scar.

coronary artery stenosis

A physical obstruction to the flow of blood through the epicardial arteries, usually due to atherosclerotic plaque.

diaphyseal medullary stenosis

Hardcastle syndrome.

infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis

Pyloric stenosis.

lumbar spinal stenosis

Stenosis of the spinal canal due to degenerative or traumatic changes at the level of the lumbar vertebrae. This condition causes back pain, often associated with pain that radiates into the legs, esp. when the patient is standing. Sitting often relieves the pain. The diagnosis is performed by spinal imaging, e.g., computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging scanning. Treatments include physical therapy, braces, analgesic agents, and spinal surgery.

mitral stenosis

Abbreviation: MS
Stenosis of the mitral valve orifice with obstruction of blood flow from the left atrium to the left ventricle. In most adults, previous bouts of rheumatic carditis are responsible for the lesion. Less often, MS may be present at birth (Lutembacher's disease), or it may develop as the mitral valve calcifies during aging.

The abnormality of the valve may predispose patients to infective endocarditis; to left atrial enlargement and atrial arrhythmias; or to left ventricular failure.

pulmonary stenosis

Stenosis of the opening into the pulmonary artery from the right cardiac ventricle.

pyloric stenosis

Stenosis of the pyloric orifice. In infants, excessive thickening of the pyloric sphincter or hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the mucosa and submucosa of the pylorus are usually responsible.

Treatment

In infants, treatment may involve open or laparoscopic division of the muscles of the pylorus. Infantile pyloric stenosis is usually diagnosed in the first 6 months of life when babies have trouble with vomiting after eating, sometimes with projectile vomiting and consequent dehydration. The disease occurs in 2 to 3 infants per 1000 births and is more common in boys than girls. In adults, endoscopic stents may be placed to open malignant obstructions.

Synonym: infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis; pyloristenosis
Enlarge picture
RENAL ARTERY STENOSIS: (A) Renal artery stenosis (before angioplasty); (B) Renal artery stenosis (after angioplasty) (Courtesy of Arnold Klein, M.D., Northwest Permanente, P.C.)
Enlarge picture
RENAL ARTERY STENOSIS: (A) Renal artery stenosis (before angioplasty); (B) Renal artery stenosis (after angioplasty) (Courtesy of Arnold Klein, M.D., Northwest Permanente, P.C.)

renal artery stenosis

Stenosis in one or both arteries that supply the kidneys; a relatively uncommon cause of hypertension. In young women the cause is usually fibromuscular dysplasia of one or both arteries. In older people the cause is usually atherosclerosis.

Treatment

Patients may be treated medically with standard antihypertensive drugs, or, in some cases, with renal artery angioplasty or bypass surgery.

See: illustration

subaortic stenosis

A congenital stenosis of the aortic tract below the aortic valves. See: hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

tricuspid stenosis

Stenosis of the opening to the tricuspid valve.

mitral stenosis

Abbreviation: MS
Stenosis of the mitral valve orifice with obstruction of blood flow from the left atrium to the left ventricle. In most adults, previous bouts of rheumatic carditis are responsible for the lesion. Less often, MS may be present at birth (Lutembacher's disease), or it may develop as the mitral valve calcifies during aging.

The abnormality of the valve may predispose patients to infective endocarditis; to left atrial enlargement and atrial arrhythmias; or to left ventricular failure.

See also: stenosis

MS

abbrev. for MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS or Master of Surgery.

multiple sclerosis

; MS; disseminated sclerosis common disease of unknown cause, classically affecting young adults, and characterized by periods of exacerbation and remission; shows autoimmune characteristics, causing central nervous system demyelination and fibrosis; affects women more than men; peak age of onset at 20-45 years; incidence increases with distance of domicile from the Equator, and in tissue types human leukocyte antigen (HLA) A3, B7, D2 and DR2; presentation varies, e.g. double vision, urinary incontinence, pain, paralysis, tremor, nystagmus, speech disturbance (depending on central nervous system sites affected)

MS

Abbreviation for morphine sulfate; multiple sclerosis; magnesium sulfate.