Leishmania major


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Related to Leishmania major: leishmaniasis, mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, Leishmania tropica

Leishmania

 [lēsh-ma´ne-ah]
a genus of protozoa comprising parasites of worldwide distribution, several species of which are pathogenic for humans. All species are morphologically indistinguishable, and therefore the organisms have usually been assigned to species and subspecies according to their geographic origin, the clinical syndrome they produce, and their ecologic characteristics. They have also been separated based on their tendency to cause visceral, cutaneous, or mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. In some classifications, Leishmania is grouped in four complexes comprising species and subspecies: L. donovani, L. tropica, L. mexicana, and L. viannia.
Life cycle of Leishmania. From Mahon and Manuselis, 2000.
Leishmania brazilien´sis Leishmania viannia.
Leishmania donova´ni donova´ni a subspecies of the L. donovani complex causing the classic form of visceral leishmaniasis in India. It is transmitted by the sandfly Phlebotomus argentipes, with humans being the only major reservoir hosts. Called also L. donovani.
Leishmania ma´jor a species of the L. tropica complex, transmitted by Phlebotomus papatasi, causing the rural form of Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis. Called also L. tropica major.
Leishmania mexica´na a complex comprising the species and subspecies causing the New World form of cutaneous leishmaniasis in humans: L. m. mexicana, L. m. amazonensis, and L. pifanoi.
Leishmania tro´pica
1. a complex comprising the species causing the Old World form of cutaneous leishmaniasis: L. tropica, L. major, and L. aethiopica.
2. a species of the L. tropica complex causing the urban form of Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis. It is found in Iran, Iraq, and India, transmitted by Phlebotomus sergenti; and in southern France, Italy and certain Mediterranean islands, transmitted by P. papatasi. Human to human transmission may also occur.
Leishmania vian´nia a taxonomic complex comprising the subspecies that cause mucocutaneous leishmaniasis in its various forms; all of the subspecies develop in the midgut, foregut, and hindgut of their sandfly vectors. Formerly called L. braziliensis.

Leish·man·i·a ma·jor

a species responsible for zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in a large area of the Mediterranean region and Asia Minor. The animal reservoirs are usually ground squirrels, such as Rhombomys opimus in parts of Russia and elsewhere in south central Asia, and other rodents in northwest India, the Middle East, and northern Africa; proven sandfly vectors include Phlebotomus papatasi, P. duboscqi, and P. salehi.

Leishmania major

A species of Leishmania transmissible by sandflies and causing skin infections in humans. Infection with L. major is found principally in the Middle East, East Africa, and the Mediterranean.
See also: Leishmania

Leishmania

a genus of protozoan parasites transmitted by sandflies, which also act as intermediate hosts.

Leishmania adleri
found in lizards and other mammals.
Leishmania aethiopica
reservoir hosts are hyraxes.
Leishmania brasiliensis brasiliensis
reservoir hosts are forest rodents. Causes mucocutaneous leishmaniasis in humans.
Leishmania brasiliensis guyanensis
dogs are infected; in humans the disease is the cutaneous form in most cases.
Leishmania brasiliensis panamensis
reservoirs are sloths, kinkajous and many other forest animals.
Leishmania chagasi
causes visceral leishmaniasis in humans and dogs.
Leishmania donovani
causes visceral leishmaniasis in humans and in carnivores.
Leishmania enriettii
causes cutaneous leishmaniasis in guinea pigs.
Leishmania infantum
causes visceral leishmaniasis in dogs and other carnivores. In humans it is children who are most commonly affected.
Leishmania major
dogs and bush mammals are reservoir hosts. In humans this is the cause of oriental sore, the important cutaneous form of the disease.
Leishmania mexicana amazonensis
causes cutaneous leishmaniasis in humans. Rodents and bush animals are reservoir hosts.
Leishmania mexicana mexicana
reservoir hosts are rodents; causes cutaneous leishmaniasis in humans.
Leishmania mexicana pifanoi
causes chronic cutaneous leishmaniasis in humans.
Leishmania peruviana
causes cutaneous leishmaniasis in humans; probably infests dogs.
Leishmania tropica
causes cutaneous leishmaniasis in humans and dogs.
References in periodicals archive ?
Successful vaccination against Leishmania donovani infection in Indian languor using alum-precipitated autoclaved Leishmania major with BCG.
Both leishmania major and leishmania tropica cause the cutaneous form of the disease, which can produce lingering boils such as the ones that popped up all over Mason AlsalehAAEs body.
Protective vaccination with promastigote surface antigen 2 from Leishmania major is mediated by a TH1 type of immune response.
The completed first drafts of the Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi, and Leishmania major genome sequences, their annotations and comparisons will be discussed at this meeting by scientists who sequenced the genomes, as well as those whose assistance they recruited to help analyze the genomes.
Novel identification of Leishmania major in Hemiechinus aurtius and molecular detection of this parasite in Meriones libycus from important foci of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran.
Beverley hid the gene for neomycin resistance between certain genetic sequences taken from the trypanosomatid Leishmania major.
Reza Salavati is applying CombiMatrix's RNA technology to develop pools of RNAi compounds to silence multiple genes in Trypasonoma brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania major.
The growth inhibitory effect of promastigote forms of Leishmania major was determined for the crude extract, fractions of the flowers of S.
DNA hybridization on squash-blotted sandflies to identify both Phlebotomus papatasi and infecting Leishmania major.
First report of genetic hybrids between two very divergent Leishmania species: Leishmania infantum and Leishmania major.
In addition, experimental infections with the protozoan parasite causing this disease, known as Leishmania major, have frequently been used to understand basic immunologic responses associated with many different infections.

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