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In malignant diseases, the paralysis of the facial nerve may be due to the perineural infiltration of the temporal bone or facial nerve, central nervous system lymphoma or invasion to the meninx, infection and hemorrhage around the facial nerve, chemotherapy associated toxicity to the nerve and reactivation of the latent viral infection.
Some viral miRNAs, including those which are analogs to host miRNAs and those which are virus-specific, seem to exert an important role in the establishment of a latent viral infection by suppression of an effective host immune response or through blockade of apoptotic processes in the infected cells [105, 106].
falciparum predisposes the host to reactivation of latent viral infection as in the present case where Herpes zoster developed during the course of illness.
Plasmodium infections have been shown to induce alterations in immune reactivity and acute malaria has been associated with reactivation of chronic and latent viral infections such as Herpes zoster (1), Herpes simplex and Epstein-Barr virus, most of these commonly seen in children.
7) Although it was first assumed that the geniculate ganglion is the location of this latent viral infection, recent neuroimaging and histopathologic evidence (8,9) places the earliest enhancement (on magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]) in the fundus of the internal auditory canal (figure 3).
The findings could have important implications for improved understanding of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease pathogenesis; prior studies suggest that latent viral infection affects development of this disease.
In renal transplant recipients who are also immunosuppressed, activation of the latent viral infection (either of donor or recipient origin) usually occurs within 2 months to 5 years (median 9 months) posttransplantation.
Among the most common latent viral infections are Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Cytomegalovirus (CMV).
Several viruses are also known to affect apoptotic pathways which permit the maintenance of latent viral infections or enhance the efficiency of viral replication (14).
The labeling changes must reflect the reported increased risk for opportunistic infections, including activation of latent viral infections.
Role of latent viral infections in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma.