Lamarckism


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Related to Lamarckism: Epigenetics

Lamarckism

(lə-mär′kĭz′əm) also

Lamarckianism

(-kē-ə-nĭz′əm)
n.
A theory of biological evolution holding that the changes occurring in an organism through use and disuse of its body parts in response to environmental change are inherited by its offspring.

lamarckism

[ləmär′kizəm]
Etymology: Jean B.P. de Lamarck, French naturalist, 1744-1829; Gk, ismos, practice
a theory postulating that organic evolution results from structural changes in plants and animals caused by adaptation to environmental conditions and that these acquired characteristics are transmitted to offspring. Also called lamarckianism, Lamarck's theory. Compare darwinian theory. lamarckian, adj., n.

Lamarckism

The discredited doctrine that species can change into new species as a result of characteristics acquired as a result of striving to overcome environmental disadvantages. It was claimed that such acquired characteristics became hereditary. (Jean Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, Chevalier de Lamarck, 1744–1829, French naturalist).

Lamarckism

the theory of inheritance of ACQUIRED CHARACTERS, which suggests that the structures developed during the lifetime of an organism, through use, are passed on as inherited characters to the next generation. Evolutionary change might thus be achieved through the transmission of these acquired characters. This theory, proposed by Jean Baptiste de LAMARCK, is now generally discounted in favour of DARWINISM, where favoured characters of use to a particular organism are maintained by selection, whereas unfavourable characters are selected against. Thus, Lamarck might have claimed that blacksmith's sons were brawny because of their father's profession, whereas Darwin would say that the reason the father was a blacksmith was because he was brawny and brawny men tend to have brawny offspring. LYSENKO attempted unsuccessfully to apply Lamarckian theory to the development of crop plants in the USSR in the 1930s.
References in periodicals archive ?
Carl Jay Bajema sums up Lamarckism as a process whereby evolution is brought about through the so- called inheritance of acquired characters -the direct effects of use or disuse of organs14.
I agree that there is not an actual reason to return to traditional Lamarckism, but traditional neo-Darwinism is not what is needed to the explanation and understanding of the evolutionary processes, the only point that seems to go into some kind of neo-Darwinism stuff is his final statement on cultural evolution, is this not memetics?
The destructive nature of Lily's vision arises from the nature of Lamarckism itself as a mechanism that turns spiritual and cultural phenomena into biological objects, absorbed then transmitted by the body.
One of the significant implications of the shift to 'genomic governmentality' is that 'many of [biology's] former foundational fictions are now in the reliquary beside Lamarckism, [and] neither life nor sex [are branches] on the same family tree that Darwin borrowed from the Bible to begin with' (Franklin, 2000: 219).
Butler's battle against the social Darwinists was later taken up by George Bernard Shaw, whose preface to Man and Superman (1903) was a manifesto of Lamarckism and eugenic socialism.
Where he was not original, as in his defense of Lamarckism, he was mistaken.
But other agencies are at work in developing systems, and one need not make recourse to teleology, vitalism or Lamarckism to describe them.
The first model suffered a serious setback when the Lamarckian hypothesis of the heredity of acquired characteristics was rejected by biology; this led to the founding of neo-social Darwinism in the form of a Darwinism freed from Lamarckism.
Reincarnation, if it occurs on anything like a major scale, is a thinly disguised Lamarckism.
Although for the most part deferring to Dobzhansky (1937) on genetics, Mayr in 1942 nonetheless interpreted the patterns in terms of the population genetics of the day (especially Dobzhansky and Wright); and if the genetics seems naive in places, the modern reader will recall that Mayr had been reared on and had embraced Lamarckism as a student (Mayr 1992a), and was a taxonomist in an age when genetics and taxonomy were mutually almost incomprehensible and quantification in systematics was rudimentary.
In point of fact, this is how historical evolution itself operates, by macro-structural leaps towards higher complexity, whereby the previous structures break, getting into chaos; such a process is initiated when a new function needs to create the new organs which will exert that new function--this is just what the fundamental thesis of Lamarckism had announced and just what Ervin Laszlo, Ilya Prigogine and Ken Wilber kept on asserting in their well-known thesis of symmetry breaks which represent sudden and holistical leaps in evolution.
In China, according to Yuehtsen Juliette Chung, Lamarckism was related to optimistic hopes of a progressive evolution, whereas in Soviet Russia, according to Nikolai Krementsov, Lamarckism was denounced as anti-Marxist, somewhat before genetics was also denounced as fascistic.