Records includes both solitary or gregarious species, specialist or generalist parasitoids, and as far as is known all are endoparasitoids and presumably koinobionts
(Hansson et al.
Effect of female size on host selection by a koinobiont
insect parasitoid (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae).
However, given their koinobiont
strategy, the wasps may be unable both to accelerate their growth and development sufficiently to exploit the earliest part of the moths' period of vulnerability more heavily and simultaneously obtain maximum resources from them (see Strand and Casas, 2008).
When parasitoids were found on larvae, they were further categorized as idiobiont (suspending leafminer development) ectoparasitoid, idiobiont endoparasitoid, or koinobiont
endoparasitoid (allowing continued development of the leafminer host before eventual host death).
parasitoid species parasitize young or early-stage hosts in which they can proceed through their development, and they usually do not kill the host until the parasitoid reaches its final developmental stage (Kant et al.
Metopiinae are solitary larval/pupal koinobiont
endoparasitoids of Lepidoptera, and hosts are either caterpillars that feed exposed on plants or those that feed in weak concealment (Gauld et al.
Furthermore, individuals removed from the population at an early stage by predators or idiobiont parasitoids (that kill or permanently paralyze the host during oviposition) are unavailable to natural enemies at later stages, whereas diseased immatures and those parasitized by koinobiont
parasitoids (that permit continued host development following oviposition) may remain in the population for some time and be eaten by predators or killed by some non-enemy factor.
Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), which originated in the Indo-Australian region, is a koinobiont
endoparasitoid of various tephritid species.
Most of the known species of Meteorus are koinobiont
endoparasitoids and generally attack young caterpillars, and some are specialised in parasitising beetle larvae (Shaw and Huddleston, 1991; Shaw, 1995, 1997; Zitani and Shaw, 2002).
Yet, the koinobiont
endoparasitoid Pseudapanteles dignus (Muesebeck, 1938) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and the idiobiont ectoparasitoid Dineulophus phthorimaeae (De Santis, 1983) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) accomplish over 50% of natural parasitism and exhibit promising attributes for either augmentative or conservation biological control in the native range of T.
Of these, wasps of the subfamily Pimplinae (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) included in Polisphinctine genus-group (Polysphinctini sensu Townes 1969; hereafter "polysphinctines) are exclusively ectoparasitoid koinobiont
of spiders (Gauld and Dubois, 2006).
Like all Microgastrinae, species of Protapanteles are koinobiont
endoparasitoids of lepidopteran larvae.