CTX-M] gene, which originates from chromosomal genes of environmental Kluyvera
species (8) and has emerged as the most prevalent cause of plasmid-mediated ESBL.
Genus Cipro Eryth Tetra 1 Acinetobacter + - + 2 Alcaligenes + - - 3 Burkholderia + - - 4 Campylobacter + + + 5 Chryseobacterium + - - 6 Citrobacter + - + 7 Clostridium - + + 8 Enterobacter + - + 9 Enterococcus + + + 10 Escherichia + - + 11 Hafnia + - + 12 Klebsiella + - + 13 kluyvera
+ - + 14 Legionella + + - 15 listeria + - + 16 Morganella + - + 17 Pasteurella + + + 18 Profeus + - + 19 Providencia + - - 20 Pseudomonas + - + 21 Raouitella + - + 22 Salmonella + - + 23 Serratia + _ + 24 Staphylococcus + + + 25 Stenotrophomonas + - + 26 Streptococcus + + + 27 Yersinia + - + Abbreviations: Cipro, ciprofloxacin; Eryth, erythromycin; Tetra, tetracycline.
2007) and lower Ni toxicity in presence of the bacteria Kluyvera
aseorbata SUD165 (Madhaiyan et al.
dagger][dagger]) Other includes: Proteus mirabilis, Citrobacter species, Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Providencia rettgeri, Burkholderia cepacia, Moraxella catarrhalis, Serratia species, Morganella species and Kluyvera
Gram-negative bacteria pursue various molecular strategies for development of resistance to [beta]-lactam antibiotics: (a) generation of extended-spectrum [beta]-lactamases (ESBL) due to extension of the spectrum of already widely disseminated plasmid-encoded [beta]-lactamases by amino acid substitution; (b) acquisition of genes encoding ESBL from environmental bacteria as, for instance the CTX-M-type [beta]-lactamases from Kluyvera
Of 17 studied animals, several members of the Enterobacteriaceae Family can be isolated (Table 2), including representatives of the genus Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Escherichia, Klebsiella, Kluyvera
, Morganella, Proteus, Providencia, Salmonella and a Gram-negative facultative anaerobic rod, which is morphologically similar to the members of the Enterobacteriaceae family, Aeromonas, confirming some recorded findings for reptiles in the literature (McCoy and Seidler, 1973; Moreno et al.
is an opportunistic pathogen that can occur in immunosuppressed as well as immunocompetent hosts.
CTX-M-type [beta]-lactamases (CTX-Ms) are broad-spectrum [beta]-lactamases derived from the chromosomally encoded [beta]-lactamases of Kluyvera
U95364 and AF286192) as well as to the kluA-2 gene of Kluyvera
ascorbata (GenBank accession no.
CTX-M]s are descended from a common ancestor that was incorporated in ancient times into the chromosome of the ancestor of Kluyvera
species through horizontal transfer.
Among them, CTX-M-type ESBLs are rapidly expanding and are derived from chromosomal class A [beta]-lactamases of Kluyvera
These enzymes probably evolved from chromosomal [beta]-lactamases of Kluyvera