Janus kinase

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Janus kinase (JAK),

a member of a particular family (JAK) of tyrosine kinases involved in cytokine receptor signaling. Mutations in JAK3 on chromosome 19p cause autosomal recessive severe combined immunodeficiency [MIM*600173]. JAK1 and JAK2 are mapped to the short arms of chromosomes 1 and 9, respectively.
[Janus, Roman god of doorways, depicted with two faces looking in opposite directions]

Janus kinase

Any of a family of four tyrosine kinases—JAK1, JAK2, JAK3 and Tyk2—that associate with cytokine receptors. Once receptors are activated, JAKs phosphorylate STAT transcription factors, initiating the JAK-STAT signalling pathway. JAK family members share a common protein domain, a kinase domain, a regulatory pseudo -kinase domain, a SH2 domain and a FERM domain, this last of which mediates the association of JAK with other enzymes and cytokine receptors.

JAK family associations
• JAK1—Mediates signals from IFN-alpha, beta, gamma and IL2, IL6 receptors.
• JAK2—Transduces signals from single chain, IL3 receptor families and IFN-gamma receptors.
• JAK3—Associates with the IL2 receptor gamma-chain.
• Tyk2—Associates with the IFN1 and IL6, -10, -12 and -23 cytokine receptors.
References in periodicals archive ?
The way has already been paved for dermatologic researchers by veterinarians, who developed oclacitinib (Apoquel), a relatively selective Janus kinase 1 (JAKl) inhibitor, for canine AD.
Genetic factors mediate the development of cytotoxic T cells, and it's been found that the Janus kinase (JAK) pathways may be important in the immunology of the hair loss.
Keywords: tofacitinib, alopecia universalis, Janus kinase inhibitor
Effect of Janus kinase 2/signal transducer and activators of transcription 3 signaling pathway on the release of high mobility group box 1 in trypsinogen activation peptide-induced rat pancreatic acinar cells.
Primary and secondary antibodies against inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK), janus kinase (JNK), p38, Bax, Bcl-2, cleaved caspase-3, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), and tubulin, were purchased from Cell Signaling (Beverly, MA, USA).
As a result of this transaction, Aclaris acquired worldwide rights to intellectual property licensed to Vixen by Columbia University covering the use of certain Janus Kinase inhibitor compounds for the treatment of alopecia areata, androgenetic alopecia and other dermatological conditions.
Treatment with Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor drugs in aged mice, equivalent to 80-year-old people, decreased the amounts of activin A and partially reversed the fat tissue insulin resistance that contributes to diabetes in old age.
In experiments with mouse and human hair follicles, researchers found that drugs that inhibit the Janus kinase (JAK) family of enzymes promote rapid and robust hair growth when directly applied to the skin.
In 2005 James et al (3) described a specific acquired point mutation in the Janus kinase 2 gene (JAK2) in PV.
GSK2586184 is a Janus kinase 1 (JAK1) inhibitor, which is developed within Galapagos's inflammation alliance withA GSK.
Recently the janus kinase inhibitor, oclacitinib has been approved for the treatment of atopic dermatitis in United States and European Union.
GLPG0634 is an orally available, novel Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor with selectivity for JAK1 developed by Galapagos.