traumatic brain injury

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traumatic brain injury

n. Abbr. TBI
Injury to the brain caused by an external force such as a violent blow to the head, resulting in loss of consciousness, memory loss, dizziness, and confusion, and in some cases leading to long-term health effects, including motor and sensory problems, cognitive and behavioral dysfunction, and dementia.

trau·mat·ic brain in·ju·ry

(TBI) (traw-mat'ik brān in'jŭr-ē)
An insult to the brain as the result of physical trauma or external force, not degenerative or congenital, that may cause a diminished or altered state of consciousness and may impair cognitive, behavioral, physical, or emotional functioning.
Synonym(s): acquired brain injury.

traumatic brain injury

Abbreviation: TBI
Any injury involving direct trauma to the head, accompanied by alterations in mental status or consciousness. TBI is one of the most common causes of neurological dysfunction in the U.S. Each year about 50,000 people die from brain trauma, and an additional 70,000 to 90,000 sustain persistent neurological impairment because of it. About 5.3 million Americans live with TBI disabilities. The most common causes of TBI are motor vehicle or bicycle collisions; falls; gunshot wounds; assaults and abuse; and sports-related injuries. Twice as many males as females suffer TBIs, with the incidence highest between ages 15 and 24. People over 75 are also frequently affected (because of falls).

Patient care

Many traumatic injuries to the head and brain are preventable if simple precautions are followed: motorists should never drive while intoxicated; cyclists and bicyclists should always wear helmets; frail, elderly people should wear supportive footwear and use sturdy devices to assist them while walking.

Symptoms of TBI may include problems with concentration, depressed mood, dizziness, headaches, impulsivity, irritability, post-traumatic stress, or, in severe injuries, focal motor, sensory or verbal deficits. Late effects of severe or repeated injuries can include dementia, Parkinsonism, or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig's disease).

CAUTION!

If an injury to the brain has occurred or is suspected, the victim should not be moved until spinal precautions are carefully implemented. Serial neurologic assessments are carried out to identify the severity of injury and any subsequent deterioration, using the Glasgow Coma Scale.

TBIs can produce intracranial hemorrhage (epidural hematoma [EDH]), subdural hematoma (SDH), intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), and traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH); cerebral contusions; concussion (with postconcussive syndrome); and diffuse axonal injury (DAI). Treatments vary depending upon the type of injury that occurred. Synonym: cerebral concussion

See: table
See also: injury

trau·mat·ic brain in·ju·ry

(TBI) (traw-mat'ik brān in'jŭr-ē)
An insult to the brain as the result of physical trauma or external force, not degenerative or congenital, which may cause a diminished or altered state of consciousness and may impair cognitive, behavioral, physical, or emotional functioning.
References in periodicals archive ?
With the use of these guidelines, the risk of missing intracranial injury and overuse of CT scan can be avoided to a great extent.
A meta-analysis of variables that predict significant intracranial injury in minor head trauma.
Data source: The findings are based on a validation of a predictive tool, using at least three of six clinical features, with 198 cases of intracranial injury confirmed as abusive or nonabusive in children under 36 months.
None of patient included in this study had unrecognized intracranial injury.
He distinguished three types; Type 1: the cribriform plate 1-3 mm more caudal than ethmoid roof least common (11% of 450 skulls), Type 2: the cribriform plate is 4-7 mm lower, was the most common and occurred in 70% of cases, and Type 3 cribriform plate being 8-16 mm (18%); this being the most dangerous for the surgeon because of a perforation through the lateral lamella of the cribriform plate, (8) leading to CSF rhinorrhea and intracranial injury.
Performance of the Canadian CT Head Rule and the New Orleans Criteria for predicting any traumatic intracranial injury on computed tomography in a United States Level I trauma center.
Four patients suffered severe long-term physical effects of their injury: 1 became paraplegic following a gunshot to the cervical spine, 2 had widespread brain damage due to intracranial injuries, and another with intracranial injury became hemiplegic and died 2 years later from pneumonia.
The difference was statistically significant for all TBI types, including intracranial injury (the most common form, which accounted for 40% of the injuries among the veterans) as well as for concussion, postconcussion syndrome, head fracture, and unspecified head injury, Dr.
The loss of consciousness (LOC) can be the mani- festation of intracranial injury or concussion head injury.
Although early diagnosis and treatment of individuals with head trauma improves the morbidity and mortality associated with any intracranial injury, for many turtles presented to rehabilitation centers, the most humane course of action is euthanasia.
Intracranial injury resulting from transorbital penetrating objects is rare in a noncombat setting.
These patients may present urgently with loss of conscious and acute intracranial injury.

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